Reproduction is a biological process. It is an innate ability possessed by living entities wherein new offsprings are produced by their parents. It is an indispensable process for the continuation of species and evolution. Reproduction can occur via two modes:
- Asexual reproduction
- Sexual reproduction
An individual can produce one offspring or multiple offsprings without the involvement of another parent. This process is referred to as asexual reproduction which may or may not involve the formation of gamete. It is a simpler process and produces offsprings that are identical to the parent. Contrary to sexual reproduction, asexual reproduction enables an individual to reproduce at a much faster rate.
Asexual reproduction is usually observed in a few plants and microbes. Sexual reproduction, on the other hand, involves the fusing of the male and females gametes and is a much more significant and complex mode of reproduction as compared to asexual reproduction, seen in higher animals and humans typically. Gametes are either formed by the same individual or by different individuals of the opposite gender.
Sexual reproduction produces offsprings which are not identical to their parents. The difference is since two haploid gametes (each from male and female) fuse during the event of fertilization, to generate a diploid zygote and so vary in their genetic constitution. Hence sexual reproduction is a better mode of reproduction as it allows the formation of new variants by the combination of DNA from two different entities from the opposite genders.
New variants arise as a result of female and male gametes hence they are not identical to not only their parents but to anyone else (unless a case of twins). Individuals are able to adapt to constantly changing surroundings and demanding environments as a result of these variations. Apart from this, sexual reproduction also brings about the evolution of species of better-suited entities ensuring greater survival rate of species.
Asexual reproduction, on the other hand, exhibits very little to no variations hence producing exact replicas. Reproduction is one of the fundamental processes studied under biology.
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