Gregor Mendel is known as the Father of Genetics. He experimented on pea plants and discovered the basic inheritance rules.
The three laws of inheritance are
(1) Law of dominance – States that in heterozygous condition among two alleles of a character the alleles which express itself is dominant and the one which can’t express is recessive.
(2) Law of segregation – States that although the alleles of a character remain together for a long time they do not mix with each other and separate at the time of gametogenesis so that each gamete receives only one allele of a character either dominant or recessive.
(3) Law of Independent assortment – States that alleles of a character can undergo any sort of combination to give rise to a phenotype differing from both the parents.