Write short notes on the composition of DNA and RNA

DNA and RNA are a long unbranched linear polymer of monomer units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made up of, one each of a pentose sugar (Ribose), Phosphoric acid and one of the four bases of a nitrogen-containing the heterocyclic compound.

  • Phosphoric acid in DNA /RNA: Both DNA and RNA have phosphoric acid (H3PO4) attached to the pentose. 
  • Sugar of DNA/ RNA: In DNA the pentose is 2-deoxy ribose and in RNA it is ribose.
  • Nitrogenous Base: These are derivatives of nitrogen-based heterocyclic organic compounds, and are of two types – a) Purine and b) pyrimidine. Both DNA and RNA contain – purine type nitrogenous bases of adenine (abbreviated A) and guanine (G) and pyrimidine type cytosine (C). Apart from that, DNA has a second pyrimidine called thymine (T), whereas RNA has a thymine analogue called uracil (U).

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