Aldehyde is a chemical compound with a functional group -CHO. In aldehydes, the carbonyl group has one hydrogen atom attached to it together with either a 2nd hydrogen atom or a hydrogen group which may be an alkyl group or one containing a benzene ring.
The general formula of alkene is CnH2n+1 so the general formula for aldehyde will be CnH2n+1CHO or CnH2nO.
where n = 0,1,2,3….
The physical property of Aldehyde
The most common aldehydes and ketones are liquid at ordinary temperatures, with the exception of formaldehyde, which is a gas at room temperature. Lower molecular mass aldehydes and ketones have a strong, disagreeable odour, but greater molecular mass aldehydes and ketones have a pleasant odour. Indeed, a few ketones are utilised in perfumery, and several aromatic aldehydes derived from natural sources have a pleasing scent.
- Plasticizers, resins, dyes, and solvents all require aldehydes as an intermediary.
- Food, textile, rubber, leather, plastics, chemicals, and healthcare are just a few of the sectors that employ them
- . In the production of essences and fragrances, higher aliphatic aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes are employed.
- Acetic acid is mostly manufactured using aldehydes.
- Peracetic acid, ethyl acetate, pyridine derivatives, colours, fragrances, synthetic flavouring agents, and plastics are all made from it. Because of its germicidal and solvent qualities, formaldehyde has a wide range of applications.
- It’s also utilised in the manufacture of polymers.
Aldehydes are extremely reactive compounds that can take part in a variety of processes. The following are the most important reactions from an industrial standpoint.
Condensations (a) To make plasticizers and polyols, for example,
(b) Alcohol formation, particularly “oxo-alcohols.”
The attachment of nucleophiles to the formal carbon in the production of hemiacetals (structures of aldose sugars) and imine are essential reactions from a biological standpoint (which is oxidative deamination).
Aldehydes Found in Nature
Many aldehyde traces may be discovered in essential oils, and many of them, such cilantro, cinnamaldehyde, and vanillin, contribute to their pleasant aromas. Aldehydes are uncommon in natural building blocks such as nucleic acids, amino acids, and lipids, possibly due to the strong reactivity of the formyl group. The majority of sugars, on the other hand, are aldehyde derivatives. These aldoses occur as hemiacetals, which are disguised versions of the parent aldehyde. In an aqueous solution, for example, only a little amount of glucose occurs as the aldehyde.
Articles to refer
- What are functional groups and give example?
- How can I identify functional groups in organic chemistry?