Current Affairs: Revising World Maps
Students, welcome to BYJU’s classes! In this session we’ll be seeing geography through maps. As you are all aware that UPSC gives lot of questions, at least 9 to 10 questions comes only from maps. And students are confused at this point of time what all we need to see in the maps. There are few who actually say that we need to muck it up in a particular fashion and all but when UPSC asks any question you will not be able to answer accurately because there won’t be any picture in front of you. Earlier what UPSC used to do? It used to give one blank or white maps where only the outlines used to be there and then they used to ask you to mark it. Like you know, there used to be A, B, C, D something like you know a state used to be given and 4 places used to be given and then they used to ask A, B, C, D, like you know, arrange it all accordingly. 1, 2, 3, 4 – arrange it accordingly. But now UPSC is not giving the map at all. Only they are giving the names and they are asking you to arrange it. So when this happens it would be very important for you to have a fair picture of how exactly that particular region looks like. So in this session what I’ll be doing, which are those areas which you need to actually identify in the world map so that you will be able to answer the questions properly. So if you take world maps, every region will become important and if you start by hearting almost all the countries, then you never end up and maps will become very difficult for you. If it is related to India, it is easy for us to analyze because we would have heard the name in one form or the other form. But in the world it is very difficult. So in this session what I am going to do. I am trying to take those events which are important, which had significance in the current affair and in those areas what kind of questions can come. We’ll go through every particular continent, every particular country and see what may be important in that particular region. So the difference here will be in the world map when we take continent wise and when we take country wise usually the questions will come in UPSC prelims will be different when we look at map based questions in India map. In world map, the questions is usually surrounded around continents. Within the continents they usually ask which mountains are present. For example, Atlas Mountain is present in which continent, or, for example, Rocky Mountains is present in which continent? So these kind of questions are usually asked. Deserts, like you know you have grasslands, these are the most familiar questions and they also ask questions like arrange the capitals from south to north, east to west and all. So in this lecture we’ll be seeing those important areas from where you can expect questions. So in the remaining days please go through these ones and try to remember. Try opening that particular region in the atlas that you have and try to actually see how exactly the countries are arranged and what needs to be seen here. Many people ask a question of which atlas should I actually read for this. There is no one particular thing. Whatever you have try to see that and the places which I am telling you, if that is not there in your atlas, try to mark it and try to memorize it as much as possible. So let’s begin with the session.
So first let us take Asia and in Asia please start with West Asia. As per India we call it West Asia. As per US we call it Middle East. So if you take West Asia the first thing that you need to see is the Caspian Sea. Right? West Asia see Caspian Sea and in Caspian Sea what you need to observe is which are the countries which are bordering Caspian Sea? So you’ve Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Azerbaijan. So you have one, two, three, four and five. You don’t have any other country nearby. So Caspian Sea surrounded by 5 countries and which are those countries you should be clear. So this can be a question. Like you know, which are the countries which surround Caspian Sea. The second question can be, can you see Aral Sea? Right? Aral Sea. So Aral Sea is in between which two countries? Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. This can be a question. Aral Sea is in between which two countries? Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. Caspian Sea is surrounded by which countries? Five different countries. So these can be questions from this particular area. So just ensure that, one, you see which is surrounding Aral Sea and the second one around Caspian Sea. The second thing that you need to focus this year specifically is the Arabian Peninsula. Why this is important? You would’ve observed Yemen crisis. You have observed ISIS in the Iraq and all. So when that you usually seen in current affairs high possibility that you may get questions in that. So let us take Arabian Peninsula first. So when you take Arabian Peninsula you see you have countries, first observe the countries which are present. So you have Yemen, you have Oman, you have UAE, you have Qatar, you have Kuwait and you have Iraq and Iran. Can you see these? So you have Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, UAE, Doha, Qatar and then you have Kuwait. Now what I want you to see here is first thing observe the countries, the second thing is see the capitals. You have Riyadh right, and you have Yemen’s capital, then you have Oman’s capital, then you have UAEs’ capital, then you have Qatar’s capital. What question is expected from this? Arrange the following capitals from west to east. When you arrange from west to east first you find Yemen’s capital, then you find Saudi Arabia’s, then you have Kuwait, Qatar, UAE and Oman. So you need to write the names from left, Al Riyadh, and you have Kuwait and then you have Doha, you have Abu Dhabi and then Muscat. So this needs to be arranged properly. There can be a question on this. And they may also ask you about Iraq, in Jordan, Yemen they can actually ask you. So if you see this particular area, Jordan doesn’t even cross through Yemen. So actually you get Yemen first. If they go further beyond then they may actually start from Israel or Lebanon. So if you take first, you get Jerusalem, then you get Beirut, then you get Yemen, then you get Al, then you get Riyadh, and then you keep going. So, please write all the capitals from west to east, east to west, you need to remember in this particular region. And this particular region is important this year because there is lot of crisis happening in this region. So please students, try to understand. Arrange it south to north, west to east. Any question can come from this particular area. So this is one. The second thing is, you see the same Arabian Peninsula but see Red Sea. Red Sea is surrounded by which countries. You have Saudi Arabia, you have Egypt, you have Sudan, you have Eritrea, and you have Djibouti. Remember Ethiopia doesn’t have any border. Right? Then you have Somalia. And you have Aden, then the region is Gulf of Aden. You’ve Aqaba, Gulf of Aqaba. You’ve Gulf of Suez also present here. So again you see capitals, Abu Dhabi, Sana, Riyadh, and then Israel and all will be here. So you need to see Red Sea, Gulf of Aqaba, Gulf of Aden is important. And then if you take this particular region, Persian Gulf. When you see Persian Gulf, which countries usually surround Persian Gulf? You have Iran, you have Iraq, Baghdad, and the river actually flows into this. So you need to know that as well. And then you see Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman as well. So, you need to observe Red Sea. You need to observe Persian Gulf. And the capitals arranged from south to north and north to south. And when you are seeing please observe that Israel you get first. Try to draw lines like this. Israel, then you get Lebanon then you get Syria and other stuff. So if you take even Sana and all they are actually after. So if you take even Sana and all they are actually after the Israel Palestine and all. So please be careful. The picture actually is in this way. If you see the line is in this way. They are not straight. So usually when students think, they think it straight, like you know, you have Israel, Palestine, Lebanon and all and then you may feel that Saudi Arabia and all comes below. So please have a picture how the lines are actually there so that east to west, north to south it is easy for you to analyze. So the next picture that needs to be seen is Israel. You always get a question on Israel and Palestine. So first thing let us see Israel and Palestine. So you have Israel, right? So Palestine is divided into three. One you have Golan Heights, another one is West Bank, other one is Gaza Strip. Remember that West Bank is not in the west. So they may give you these three places and say 1, 2, 3 and ask you, like you know, arrange. Though I have told you in the beginning UPSC has stopped asking you but please be prepared. There is always reversals. Sometimes again they may come back and actually ask a question on that. So let us prepare traditionally what all can come and we should be ready for anything. So you should know Gaza Strip, then you have West Bank and then Golan Heights. And then you take Israel, you see which country border it. Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon. So you have all these countries. See the capitals of these countries and arrange it from east to west, or west to east. This is important. So Israel, West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights and then in Israel just see Jerusalem where it is and see which countries are surrounding it, see the capitals, arrange it from west to east. So the other important region that you need to focus is Black Sea. So in Black Sea what you need to see is this particular portion. This is Crimea, and there is lot of fight over this last year. Like you know, and even now you have a lot of issues in Ukraine. So, because of this reason, this region may be important for you. Last year the question was Turkey falls between which two countries. Here the picture is very much clear. So you may not expect a same question. What I actually expect is, you have Sea of Azov, you have Black Sea, you have Sea of Marmara and Aegean Sea. They may give you 1, 2, 3 and 4, and they may ask you to arrange the seas. This is one. The second thing can be tell me the countries which are surrounding Black Sea. Russia, Ukraine and then you see Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey and Georgia. So you have Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey and Georgia. So these places are important. So two things that you need to observe, one Black Sea, countries which are surrounding it and also the seas which are actually present one after the other. So this can be a question. So please try to understand this particular region.
Then you take Central Asian countries. Modi has recently visited this particular area so there can be a question from this area as well. So what is the question? So capitals? First Asthana, Tashkent, Turkmenistan – Ashgabat, Afghanistan – Kabul, Tajikistan – Dushanbe, and Bishkek. Can you see there can be a question from west to east? So first you get Ashgabat. So let us start from Iran itself. You have Tehran, Ashgabat, then you have Asthana, Tashkent, Kabul, Dushanbe, Bishkek. Can you see? How it is moving. So first Tehran, Ashgabat, Asthana, Tashkent, then you have Kabul, then you have Dushanbe and then you have Bishkek. So this can be, if Islamabad is given, it may come but I would expect question only from the Central Asia and in Central Asia one is the Aral Sea that you need to see and then you need to see Caspian Sea and you need to see this particular capitals and they may actually give you straight question, i.e. Kazakhstan, which is the capital? Like you know, Kazakhstan – Asthana. Uzbekistan – Tashkent, Turkmenistan – Tehran. Which of the following is not properly matched. Or which of the following is properly matched. So they may give you questions like this. So just ensure that Central Asia, especially the capitals is read properly.
Then let us take East Asia. In East Asia you know China is very important and Modi visited Mongolia as well. So, please see these areas, Mongolia, China. So the first thing that you need to observe in East Asia is, see this, you have Sea of Japan which is in between North Korea, that is Korean Peninsula, North Korea, South Korea and then you have Japan. And then you take China. You have Yellow Sea, then you have East China Sea and then you get the South China Sea. So first thing, see seas, Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea, East China Sea. And then you see the capitals. You have Ulaanbaatar, then you have Beijing, then you have Pyongyang, then you have Seoul. So, the places if you see, first is, Ulaanbaatar, then you have Beijing, then you have Pyongyang, then you have Seoul and then you have Tokyo. So this order is important. So one, they may ask you east to west or north to south. Like you know, if you take north to south, first will be Seoul, second will be, like you know, Tokyo, almost same but you can give first to Seoul, second Tokyo, third you get Pyongyang, fourth Beijing. So these places are also important. Like you know, sometimes it is very important for you to analyze it one after the other. So, this is one. The second thing is we know lot of places in other countries but we don’t know much about China, and China is growing. It is important for us to know some places in China from south to north as well, or from north to south. First, some important places that you can remember is Harbin, Beijing, right, then you have Shanghai, Guangzhou, Hong Kong – this is in news so this is important, you might have heard of Kunming – Kolkata to Kunming actually we are planning to have a route. So can you see? It’s almost similar. We actually think that China is somewhere here and we usually get it here, but if you see Kolkata to Kunming, they are almost on the same line. So you may actually get a question like this – Kolkata, Dhaka, then Burma and Kunming, these may be arranged from east to west or west to east. So this needs to be analyzed. So which are the places that you need, that you need to see in China. So first Beijing, Harbin, Beijing, Zhengzhou, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Kunming, Chengdu. So Chengdu is a place if we see the sister cities that we are planning to develop, Bangalore-Chengdu is one, so this is one, Kolkata-Kunming and then you have Delhi-Beijing, which is actually coming up. So this is actually these four, these three places or these four places are important for you. So just ensure that you’re actually aware of these places and arrange it from south to north or north to south. First see capitals and then you need to see within China these regions. Then the next important thing is your South China Sea. So when we are talking about South China Sea, has it a lot of quarrels between different countries on South China Sea. There can be a potential question on this as well. So which are the regions which actually come. You have China, you have Hainan, you have Vietnam, you have Philippines, and you have Malaysia which actually have quarrels with each other. So you have Philippines which fight with China over the territory, you have Vietnam which fights. So India is actually drilling oil near these islands. Like you know, where there is dispute between Vietnam and China, India is actually present and this is usually in this area. And then you have Malaysia. This is divided into two regions, and you have Philippines. So this is important for your preparation. South China Sea. China is an important player today. You may get a question anything on that so first see seas in the eastern side and then you see the southern side and then also you should observe which are the countries. Then you see the places which are in dispute, Paracel, you have Scarborough Shoal and Spratly. So these are actually the important disputed territories between China and other countries. So if at all there is a question, China and Vietnam, on which island it is actually disputed. China and Philippines on which island it is actually disputing. China and Malaysia, on which island they are disputing. So this needs to be analyzed carefully.
Then, let’s take Southeast Asia. You saw East China, you saw South China, right? Now let’s take Southeast Asia. So if we take Southeast Asia, let us see first Myanmar. I’ll start with capital – Naypyidaw, and then you have Bangkok, Phnom Penh, Vientiane, Hanoi, right, you have Kuala Lumpur. Last year the question was actually, arrange the places from south to north, or north to south. So now you should be aware that they won’t ask a similar kind of question from Southeast Asia, because they know that students would have read. Now the question can be not on this but the question can be actually on the rivers that actually flow in the Southeast Asia. So what exactly you need to observe in Southeast Asia this time is on the rivers. So what is it? First let us see Brahmaputra, and then you have Irrawaddy, then you have Salween, then you get Chao Phraya and then you have Mekong. So arrange the rivers from west to east. Then you have to start from Irrawaddy, Salween, Chao Phraya and Mekong. This can be a question. So just please be prepared on the rivers which actually goes because cities are actually asked already. Then I want you to actually focus on Indonesia. Within that you need to focus on Sumatra and Jakarta. The reason being tsunami when it actually happened, it happened because of the or the epicenter was actually Sumatra. So please be sure that there can be a question on tsunami because 2004 you had tsunami, 2014, ten years had happened and there was no exam. So 2015 you may have an exam on that. So please be prepared on tsunami. Any question can come and within that what is important from maps is this particular stuff. Right? Sumatra Islands. So see how Indonesia is broken into different islands. That is enough.
Then South Asia, I hope you are all aware. Let me just tell the countries that are a part of SAARC because SAARC is in news for many reasons. People may get confused. You have Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives. Remember Myanmar is not part of SAARC, or South Asia. Usually we consider only these as per SAARC organization, Myanmar is not part. You have 8 countries apart from that.
So next let us take another important country in Asia, i.e. Japan. Japan is very important for us because Modi has actually visited. So what exactly you need to see in Japan? In Japan there are four major islands. You have Hokkaido, and the larger one is Honshu, you have Shikoku and you have Kyushu. So they are arranged Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu. These 4 islands are important and within this there are certain provinces, you have Tohokou, Kanto, Tokai, these are provinces and of the places that you need to analyze. What are the places that you need to remember? First, Fukushima, right? You need to see Tokyo. You need to see Osaka, Hyogo, Kyoto – you would have heard of Kyoto Protocol, Hyogo Framework, all this is there. So this is important. Hiroshima is important. Hiroshima-Nagasaki is also important for you this year because 1945. So just ensure that where these places are present and analyze it from Nagasaki, Hiroshima. So west to east, or north to south. You need to remember the cities. Some of the major cities that you need to remember is Nagasaki, Hiroshima, Hyogo, Kyoto, Osaka, Tokyo and Fukushima. So if you can remember these it should be more than enough.
So, after this let us see another major continent, Australia, where Modi visited recently. And let us see which places in this is important for us. So to begin with actually in Australia let us see the physical one. So usually you may get a question, Great Dividing Range is present in which country? Or Great Dividing Range – Australia or Africa, they may give you and say arrange or which of the following is properly matched. So questions can come like that. So in Australia which are the physical features which are important for you. One is Great Dividing Range, right? Second one is Simpson Desert. Third is Great Barrier Reef. Then Great Victoria Desert. Then you need to see Kimberley Plateau, Arafura Sea, Timor Sea, Gulf of Carpentaria, Bass Strait. The region which is below Australia is Tasmania. So what all you need to see? Great Dividing Range, Great Barrier Reef, you need to see Bass Strait, Tasmania, Simpson Desert, Great Victoria Desert, Kimberley Plateau. The rivers – Murray River Basin is present in which particular region can be a question. So just ensure that these are clear. Then you see which are the important cities which are actually present in Australia. You may actually get question in arranging them. So if you see first, Brisbane, then Sidney, then Canberra, then Melbourne, then Adelaide, Perth, Darwin. They may ask you 1, 2, 3, 4, arrange it or they may ask you, like you know, west to east. Perth, Darwin, Adelaide, Melbourne, Canberra, Sidney, Brisbane. So I always draw lines perpendicular so that you understand where which one is actually falling. And if you want to see north to south. Like you know, see this, first you have Melbourne, then you have Canberra, then you had Adelaide, then you have Sidney, then you have Perth, then you have Brisbane and then you get Darwin. So this also needs to be arranged. So question can be on anything. And if you see Australia, Australia is divided into Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia, Northern Territory. So Queensland capital is Brisbane, New South Wales you have Sidney, Victoria – Melbourne, South Australia – Adelaide, Western Australia – Perth, Northern Australia – Darwin. So usually questions are also asked on this basis. So, Australia you need to see the physical features, then different states and their capitals, and arrange them from east to west.
Take New Zealand. In New Zealand you should know that there are two islands. One is North Island and another one is South Island. These two are actually separated by Cook Strait. This is important. You have Mount Cook. This is the highest in New Zealand. So now first you need to see in south you have Southern Alps. Alps is actually present in the south island of New Zealand. And south and north is actually separated by Cook Strait. And then the places that are important you can see if you want, Christchurch, Dunedin, Napier, Hamilton, Auckland. People who watch cricket more they’ll be aware of these places but if you are able to understand this basic differences and this stuff it is enough. So what do you need to know, Southern Alps is actually present in New Zealand.
Next, let us take Europe and in Europe let me begin with Mediterranean Sea. I want to know the countries which actually border Mediterranean Sea. So if I take this you have Turkey. So Turkey is between Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea. You have Greece. Please try to read more about Greece as there is Greek crisis. Geographically also they may ask you question on Greece. So you have Greece, Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia, Italy, right, you have France, you have Spain. Portugal doesn’t come in Mediterranean Sea, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. Then you have Israel, Lebanon, Cyprus, Syria. So which all countries you saw? Around Mediterranean Sea, let’s start from Africa, you have Morocco, you have Algeria, you have Tunisia, you have Libya, you have Egypt, you have Israel, you have Lebanon, Cyprus, Syria, Turkey, Greece, Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia, Italy, France, Spain. Right? So these countries. Portugal is not having border with Mediterranean Sea. So this is important. Next let us take Greece. Greece is important because you have a lot of crisis happening so they may actually focus on this. So Greece is actually between Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea. You have Mediterranean Sea and Sea of Crete. How many seas? Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Crete. They may ask you Greece shares border with which of the following seas. That is one. And Greece has which islands? You have Sparta, you have Crete, right? Ionia, Ionian Islands. So even this can be a question. Greek crisis is happening so ensure that you’re reading Greece carefully. President actually visited the Scandinavian Peninsula. So let us see Scandinavian Peninsula properly. You have Baltic Sea, right? You have Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany. Kael Canal is very important – please know this name. It is actually near Denmark and Germany. Then you have Norway, then you have Sweden, right, Finland, Russia. So please see the countries which surround Baltic Sea and see the capitals of these countries and arrange them from west to east. All these are important. Please be careful on this.
Next let us take North America. In North America what you need to observe is Appalachian Mountains. You know physical map of North America. Appalachian Mountains, Ozark Plateau, Edward’s Plateau, Rocky Mountains. So when you are having your atlas, please mark these places and ensure that you are actually revising these. You should know North America, write all these. And then you arrange it from places you see. Okay, two things you need to see, in which continent which features are actually present and arranging them in order. This is what is expected in the world map more. So you have Rocky Mountains, you have Columbia Plateau, you have Sierra Nevada, Sonora Desert, Colorado Plateau. So these are important, Appalachian Mountains, Rocky Mountains, Columbia Plateau, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Sonora Desert, Colorado Plateau, Edward’s Plateau. All these are important from North America point of view. The second thing is there are great lakes of North America which you need to remember at any cost. They are Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, if you take Canada and USA, like you know, in between that you see great lakes, Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario. So Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario. So these are the five important lakes of North America. The question can be asked which of the following is great lakes of North America. So Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario. So, it borders between which two countries? US and Canada. So, the next thing that you need to see in United States is the places. So first, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Washington DC, then you see San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Vancouver, Seattle, see I’ll just come through the places again. Vancouver in the west coast, Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles, San Diego, then you have Washington DC, Philadelphia, New York, Boston. They may give you these places and ask you to arrange from north to south. Then Chicago. Right? So these are important.
Let’s take South America. In South America first countries are important. If I ask you a question which country of South America shares boundary with both Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean? So if you see this particular region, right, so Colombia, some part of Colombia is on Pacific Ocean, some part is actually in the Gulf of Mexico. Actually Colombia is one which actually has boundary with both. The second thing is which country in South America does not share border with Brazil? Which country in South America does not share boundary with Brazil. So can you see French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, you have Peru, you have Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay. What is not there? Chile and Ecuador. Right? Chile and Ecuador doesn’t have boundary with Brazil. So these two. This can be a question, like you know, please be prepared. Then you have capitals. See, Brasilia, Uruguay – Montevideo, Asuncion, Buenos Aires, Santiago, La Paz, Lima, Quito, Bogota, and you have Caracas, Georgetown, Cayenne and Paramaribo. It is important for you to understand that the places which I am actually telling, the capitals that I am actually focusing, you have to arrange it. See you need not read everything but at least before exam if you are capable of seeing it you would not attempt wrongly. The main intention in maps most of the students what they do is if they are aware of 2 to 3 places they then they try to do some analysis and try to mark. So avoid it. See these places once. So if you observe this places carefully and if you prepare in that question format, I don’t think you will miss in the examination hall. So in South America, 2 things. One, which country has border on both and then which countries share border with Brazil, which do not share border with Brazil and then you may also get a question through which countries equator actually passes. You know, please ensure that you read the countries through which the equator actually passes. Not just in South America, in Africa and in Asia as well. Then, let us take the physical map. In physical map obviously you’ll be knowing Amazon Basin is important. Brazilian Highlands is important, Brazilian Shield is important, Pampas, Patagonian Desert, Andes Mountains right? Llanos, Campos and Llanos, Atacama Desert, Galapagos Islands. So what all you saw? Galapagos Islands, Andes Mountains, Llanos, Guiana Highlands, Amazon Basin, Brazilian Shield, Brazilian Highlands, Pampas, Patagonian Desert. So these are important.
Let us take Africa. Africa, what you need to observe is, first you see the western portion. In western portion begin with Sierra Leone, Liberia, these two are together, Côte d’Ivoire – this is actually known as Ivory Coast, then you have Ghana – gold coast, Togo, Benin, Nigeria. Togo, Benin, Nigeria is Slave Coast. Okay, so Sierra Leone and Liberia is your grain coast, they may give you in match the following, Grain Coast. Côte d’Ivoire – Ivory Coast, Ghana – Gold Coast, and Togo, Benin, Nigeria is your slave coast. One is this particular information where you may get question. The second thing that you need to observe is the Red Sea portion. This is important for you because, it is here where piracy and all is more. So UPMC may ask you a question. One, Somalia you observe, Ethiopia does not have a coast. You can see Djibouti actually covers here and you have Eretria actually here. And then you have Sudan, Egypt. You know, these places are important. So, Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Eretria, Sudan, Egypt. These are important. Then in South Africa please observe. You have Lesotho, and Swaziland, which is also like enclave countries right? Lesotho and Swaziland are enclaves which are present within South Africa. The other places that are important is Cape Town, Johannesburg, Pretoria, Durban, these are important and see the countries, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Mozambique. So you my actually get a question from the South Africa also. Right? Then let us see the physical map. So in physical map Sahara Desert is important, Sahel is important, Congo Basin is important, Namib Desert is important, Kalahari Desert is important right? And then you see Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika. This is important. So Sahara Desert, Sahel, Congo Basin, Namib Desert, Kalahari Desert, then Lake Victoria and Tanganyika is important. Let us take these mountains. Atlas Range. Tell Atlas, UPSC had asked Atlas is present, like you know, Africa, whether it is currently matched or not. You need to answer it. So this is important. Atlas Range, right? Saharan Atlas Range. All these is actually present in the northern portion of Africa. So in Africa the other important thing that you need to observe is Lake Victoria, and when you are actually talking about Lake Victoria, see the countries which are actually surrounding Lake Victoria. Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania. So a question can be asked on countries surrounding African lake also. Because people don’t usually focus on these areas much. Next you need to see East African Rift Valley. So when I am saying East African Rift Valley, what is Rift Valley? So you have two blocks, right? You have two blocks and one block, i.e. you have two plates and one middle portion has gone down. So this plate movement during faults is usually known as Rift Valley and the most famous Rift Valley is actually seen in Africa and it is East African Rift Valley. Please see the places, lakes which are all comes around it. Lake Tanganyika, like you know, all these are actually part of Graben, can you see here Graben. Graben is a rift valley itself. Smaller rift valley is usually this. So please ensure that East African Rift Valley where all most you need to read it carefully once. Then River Nile, when I am saying River Nile, you have White Nile and you have Blue Nile. Right? Nile actually is formed of two different sources. One is White Nile, another one is Blue Nile. White Nile begins from Lake Victoria, and you have Blue Nile which begins from Lake Thana. Both combine at Khartoum and they flow northward. There is Aswan Dam and all and then it actually enters into Mediterranean Sea. So the portion how it flows is from south to north. So if they give you which of the rivers which actually flows from south to north, which major river actually flows from south to north. You may actually observe this particular picture and think that it flows from north to south, no but it is from south to north. Then other important thing that you know is Congo River. Zaire River. The importance of this river is this is the river which actually cuts equator twice. Like you know, if you draw equator, Congo River cuts equator twice. So they may ask you a question in Africa, which of the following river cut equator twice. So please be prepared for such kind of questions. Equator which countries passes may be important and which river actually cuts may be important and which lakes, major features which actually passes through equator, please observe this. 23 and half and 23 and half you may not see completely but his may be beneficial. If you can see you may actually expect a question from 23 and half and 23 and half also.
Till now what all we have observed. We saw physical features in all the countries right? So there can be a question for where the focus may be actually on Atlas Mountains, from where it is, Atacama Desert, in which continent you actually see. Rockies, where do you see? Appalachians’ where do you see? Aergos Mountains where do you see? Such kind of questions can be one format. The second thing is cities. Arrange it from east to west or north to south. Third, sea, which countries actually fall or which country falls between two seas. You may observe lakes properly, you may observe deserts properly right? So, physical features, cities, sea, lakes deserts. If you are capable of remembering this in major continents, I hope most of your work is actually done. At this point of time I can actually list of geography through maps for not less than 10 to 20 hours where we can actually give you minute details about each and every place. What is the significance of that place? What is the question that is expected of that? Like you know, if we go like that you may not end up reading at all. So, to make it convenient at the last minute to just help the students for 2015 prelims I am just giving you these areas from where there is a high possibility that you can expect a question. So when you are saying please ensure that the areas which I am actually talking you are aware where these places actually are. If you can see from this point of view hopefully you’ll be able to answer much more questions. Thank you.