GS Paper III (Economy, S&T, Security, Environment, Disaster Management)
Hello and welcome to BIJOS classes, as our approach strategies series on how to approach the mains examination. In this video we will discuss the paper III; the GS paper III, which includes Economics, Environment, Science and Technology, Disaster Management and Security Issues. This is a comprehensive, broad perspective of the syllabus. So what we are going to do in this particular video is we are first going to understand the syllabus well. Exactly what the syllabus means. Then we will look at the sources, which mean that from where we should study. Syllabus tells us what to study, but how to study, where to study is form which you can get all the relevant information required for any particular are of the syllabus. Then we look at focus areas inside the syllabus, which are the real focus areas? Where the questions have been regularly coming from. Which are the items in the news item the hot topics we will look at. Then we look at previous years questions, you get a feel for how the questions come and finally we look at the way forward. How to tackle the examination in very tight and concise, concrete manner, because we don’t have much time left.
So overall we would have come up with complete strategy on approaching the CSE GS Paper III, which is primarily the economy paper. As we know limited time frame is there, so we will be realistic about our expectations of what can be done now. We have to accept that in the limited amount of time we cannot cover the entire syllabus. In case you haven’t done already, if you have done already very good. Continue the good work and kick the race into the real next year now but in case if you haven’t completed the whole syllabus you cannot complete the whole syllabus, we have to start narrowing down on what we can do realistically and what can we do find things that can do right now, starting today. So what are those five things, first basic concepts. This is one thing you cannot compromise on without the basic concepts, this GS Paper III in particular and mains exam in general is not easy to tackle. So make sure at least the basic concepts are clear. And the basic concepts are very easily available from NCERT textbooks etc, does not require too much investment of time in the effort. This is something we can do in the time frame that we have, this should be the first focus as we approach the mains, as we start our sprint to the finish line.
Second thing, what is the second most important thing required? Second important thing is current affairs. Immersion, now what do I mean by Immersion? Immerse yourself in current affairs. Do not compromise on daily newspaper reading. Do not compromise on using the information that you get during reading your daily newspaper reading and extending that through the googling and referring some good websites such as including our websites, including the content we will be providing to you over email etc. do not neglect this. These two things you cannot neglect. You don’t have to go back and read all the newspapers before, but whatever is in your hand right now, please make sure that its being covered. Everyday’s newspaper is covered in properly and very very pointedly. Do not waste your time reading unnecessary things in the newspaper because we do not have enough time as of now. We have to have laser sharp focus on what we study and what we do not study. What to read and what not to read. What to read is very very crucial right now. So we look at basic concepts and we have to look at current affairs.
Now, third is practice. Practice what? You have to start practicing your answer writing. You have to start practicing your answer writing skills, answer construction skills. For that make sure that you subscribe to our all India test series so that you get benchmarking as well as wonderful practice on the best kind of questions that have very good correlation with what has been coming over the years.
Now I told that there are five things, five things you should do. What is the fourth one? Take a wild guess. The fourth one is practice. And the fifth one, the fifth one is also practice. So essentially this becomes very crucial, so practice practice practice, but make sure your basic concepts and current affairs are very clear. As should be so these two things you do not compromise and on practice you invest the bulk majority of your time.
So now we will discuss how to approach specifically paper III. Now as we discuss current affairs is one of the most crucial part of our next phase in the preparation. But, much of current affairs the base is Paper III. If you look at it much of the current affairs will be economy related or environment related, or to some extent polity related, but polity related typically tends to be about the economy at least the current affairs part. Because it will be about growth, it will be about poverty, it will be about these things which are actually linked to the economy. So the understanding the economy and some of the theory behind it, concepts behind it becomes almost imperative if you want to give good answers to current affairs questions. And Paper III is almost wholly dynamic. Current affairs dominates paper III, which means if you want to score good in Paper III, you have to have current affairs. But to be able to do current affairs you have to learn to analyze current affairs well. To analyze current affairs well you have to be clear on your concepts. Which is why we said first things first, basic concepts we have to be clear on. Another thing to note about Paper III is that it’s a paper with maximum inter-linkages. Paper III connects geography because of environment. Paper III connects with history because of economy. Economy has a big role as how history plays out. Paper III connects polity, because polity and economy in——, determines all of the current affairs that is available. Paper III even links to Paper IV because Paper II and Paper III which is polity and economy together molded by the ethical framework in which they are founded, so inter-linkage there also. But, it’s a paper with maximum amount of inter-linkage, so if you understand the concept in this paper well it helps you throughout your preparation. So, as an overall analysis we can say it is scoring paper, because it is very conceptually rooted, and if you understand it well it can give good analytical answers. So, potentially scoring capacity is there. But because lot of people neglect current affairs, we see that scoring is not always optimal in this paper. But if you can focus on current affairs and concepts well, scoring is definitely possible. Current focus is important theme of this paper. Almost everything in this paper will be current affairs focus. So you have to keep that going in your mind whenever you are studying for this particular paper. It’s a wide syllabus, but its highly conceptual, that means if you cover the basic concepts, even though it is a wide syllabus, everything else becomes as applying those concepts. So even though it is a wide syllabus it is actually a very very tack-able syllabus. Notes are very helpful because its highly conceptual and current affairs related. So if you make these notes based on current affairs and the basic concepts, those notes will basically cover everything that is required for your syllabus. Good return investment means the amount of energy and effort you put into this will come back as good marks in this paper. But make sure you do it in the right way. Current focus and concepts based. Now what we are going to look at is the paper III structure. Just understand the entire structure of the paper III and how everything is interconnected in the paper itself. Basically we are looking at the logic of the paper. As we said it’s a large paper with a diverse numbers of topics but conceptually we can broadly classify them into following categories:
Part I is Indian Economy and Issues related to that. So here all the economic concepts are required to understand this well. This is important because as administrators as policy makers one of our main objective is to improve the country. Improve the living standard of the people of the country and that is through improving the economy. Improving the growth of the economy, solving the issues in the economy. To be able to do this you have to know the concepts well. So the UPSC is going to ask you want to come and help us solve this problems but have you taken the effort to understand the concepts first. So you have to tell that yes I have understood the concepts, here are my answers and that is proof. But even though main focus is on improving growth, eradicating poverty, etc. we have to always keep in mind that we are part of larger system which is the environment. Now if we don’t take care of the environment properly sustainable development will not happen. So here we are looking at development in Part I of paper I. so in part I we are looking at developing the economy, but do not neglect environment. So policy maker has to not only think of development but think about sustainable development. That is why UPSC is asking are you also concerned about the environment. Do you understand what problems can come if you ignore the environment. So we have to inform UPSC, yes look at my answers I understand the environment well and I understand, we have to take care of the environment even though we are focusing on growth. Only that will allow long term growth. Because our focus in not only on the current generation but also future generations as well. So environment comes into the picture because if you want to have proper sustained economic growth, you have to also take care of the environment well.
Then comes Science and technology. If you want to overcome some of the limitations imposed by environment and still achieve growth, how do you do that? Invest in science and technology. And technology and science is what will help us push the frontiers that are there. Environment poses certain limits to growth. But science and technology can help us overcome some of limits. Or help us do it in a sustainable fashion. So science and technology might be able to help us side step some of the problems such as pollution etc. so we have to invest in that. So lot of the problems in growth and in environment can be overcome by science and technology. So UPSC is asking are you competent enough to understand to what science and technology can help as far as growth and environment are concerned. So we have to show in our answers that yes we do understand the importance and we know how to apply and we know the basic concepts here as well. In addition we are also keeping track of whatever current affairs event going in science and technology and we are always aware of inter-linkage between these things. That we have to show in this part of syllabus.
Then comes disaster management. In all these we have some control. But sometimes we don’t have control. Disasters will strike and we can’t do much about it. So how to manage a bad situation? Here we are trying to improve growth. Here we are trying to asses some limits are there. Here we are trying to overcome those limits. But here sometimes we can’t do much but what can we do to manage. We can’t avoid things but can we still manage so that even in the bad situation we can come out of it not really hurt.
And finally internal security issues. If any of these things are neglected we will have problems because the people will not trust the government anymore. The policy makers will lose the trust of the govt. and also the neighboring countries etc may also pose sudden threats to our economy to our environment. And even cause disasters. That becomes internal security issues. So this is what can happen if we neglect to do our job well. Can we tackle these things as well? And if this is impacting any of these things, can we side step those issues as well. Again UPSC is asking can you understand some of the human made problems that are here. Human made security issues as faced the country which also have to be taken into consideration while we are pushing for growth etc. and we have to say yes we do understand that part as well.
So what we are going to do now is we are going to break down each of these topics. These are big topics we said. Broadly classified into. Now we are going to subdivide into small topics and each of these topics we are going to examine in detail.
So part I, Indian economy we said is first part, inside that these are the subtopics. Here you will find the topic heading you will find the subtopic heading. So now you have to understand, you have to be very familiar with the topics and subtopics. So first subtopic is Economic growth and how to plan for that. So this is what UPSC says Indian economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. The first segment, so here it’s very clear about making sure we utilize the resources we have, so that we can have development and employment, growth etc. the focus areas in this part of the syllabus would be, if you look at the 12th 5 yr plan, because planning, what is the government currently planning, which is the 5 yr plan. And is there a need for planning, becomes another important issue, because of NITI Ayog, planning commissioner has been replaced by NITI Ayog. So is there a need for planning, what kind of planning is required, those discussions become important. And that becomes the focus area for your current mains preparations. Another important part here to understand is taxation policies, this links to mobilization of resources. Because mobilizing the resources of the nation. Growth vs. Development becomes an important issue. What is growth? What is development? Are they both the same? Exploring great details in economy lectures so different measures of growth GDP vs. human development index. Growth engine. What causes growth in the economy, is it service, is it servers, such as industry. It is because of the make in India discussion. Current economists discuss what should be making in India? Should it be services or should it be industry. So what is the growth engine of economy? What can cause good growth and what can cause inclusive growth or development. Those kinds of issues become important and focus areas. And in case of growth is not properly focused, and then it can lead to jobless growth. Suppose services are a growth engine. Services do not employ too many people so it can lead to jobless growth. Job is not being created. So employment also comes into the picture. So how to address the issue. So the new initiative suggests skill india etc. becomes important focus area for this years mains. So make sure anything that you read in those aspects you are making copious notes on those. Various govt. programs linked to these aspects become very important. So make sure you make good notes from yojna, newspapers etc. anything related to these things. Where can you study these things let’s look at the resources. Standard economic books will cover most of the important things. Even though the current affairs topics will not be there. Byjus videos which have been released regularly as well as in the tablet we will be covering these as well as the current affairs. So that becomes an important advantage. Economic survey entire discussion is very very important. You know economic survey is not easy to follow directly, because of dense language etc. which is why we have done a specific video on the economic survey which makes it very easy to understand. And also tells you exactly which areas of the economic survey to focus. So make sure you make use of the wonderful video in your preparation. Now 12th 5 yr plan document itself become important, available in the website, the budget documents are also available in the website and NITI Ayog. The new modified version of the planning commission. These are all important sources. And website of NITI ayog also becomes very very important source. In addition there are very good magazines and newspapers available. Epw which is economy and political will and the editorials of economic times and ——times etc are can also be used to get a thorough understanding of the focus areas. Now these will focus on the focus areas so because of that we will be able to directly get the analysis on the focus areas, from these sources. And hdi and development we can look at undp and hdi- human development index reports and they will be giving an analysis on growth vs. development, that also becomes and important source. And as we discussed government programs we have India year book, which is an important source as we go through ——-14 min———- we will see how important India year book is. And specifically there are byjus videos available for most of the all of the important programs, so you can utilize that to the full extent. As we can see this is a very broad area, the sources are also very disparate but remember we have discussed start with the concepts. And start concepts, the easiest way to do it is that NCERTs. So just a quick list of the NCERT that will be useful for the whole of this paper. NCERT class X, the name of the book understands economic development. Very useful book to have. So if possible you can go through this very easy 10th level book and get a good conceptual understanding. The second one required is class 11th Indian economic development. 2nd book that is required again something that you can quickly go through. And class 12 there is a text book on Macroeconomics, which will give you very good concepts and very good fundamentals. Now in this class 12 book every chapter might not be required. It is advisable to at least read chapter 2, chapter 5 and chapter 6 which are fundamental chapters. The other chapters if you have time you can read. So once you finish these 3 NCERT books you will have the concepts required and you can start moving to other sources that I recommended. The India year book, the five year plan document, the website etc. you can start looking at those. And also you can start applying the things that you are learning to current affairs. Because every day you will be reading newspaper, so make sure you also look at some of the editorials from business times and your economic times etc. and start applying the things that you are learning there. So now we will quickly look at the previous questions that have come. So you have understanding of what kind of questions can be expected. Why Indian economy did directly switched from agricultural to services and skipped the industrial part? That is one question that has come before. So this is related to planning. So if you understood planning aspect well this question would have been easy. We cannot discuss all the questions here but we are going to indicate which part it comes from. This is coming from planning aspect of it. Demographic dividend of India and what needs to be done to utilize it. Demographic dividend means a lot of working age population is there, so this is primarily related to employment. This question is about employment and growth.
Challenges and constraints of agricultural finance in India use of tech in the same. So this is about development and mobilization of resources. We have good resources available but we are not utilizing the resources well. Here also an indication of linking to technology which is linked to science and technology part.
So this is how questions are constructed from this part of the syllabus. Companies owned by Indians vs. the multinational companies. How is the completion going on? So it is again linked to mobilization of resources and about planning and growth. Because liberalization is linked to planning again the question is coming from this part of the syllabus.
So this is how questions can come. Usually based on focused areas and it will be linking to the core ideas. So in each of the questions you can see, the core concepts of planning, employment generation, and resource mobilization and again planning will help us answer the question in a very conceptually strong fashion.
Now the second subtopic under Indian economy topic is Inclusive growth. So focus area inside this is first understanding what is inclusive growth? Inclusive growth means not leaving anybody behind. Suppose India is growing, but poorer part of India also has to be growing. So we have to have inclusive growth. Not only has some parted of the country growing. What is the need for it? Otherwise we will end up with social security issues. Otherwise we will end up with social order breaking down, internal security issues etc. that is why there is a need for it. So what are strategies for inclusive growth? What are the different models for achieving inclusive growth? These are the things are the things we should be focusing on. What is the govt. initiative for inclusive growth? What is the policy framework for it? What are the govt. plans for it? Again discussed in the govt. program videos. Economic surveys that show what govt. ideas are. Budget shows what action govt. is taking. And five yr strategies which again shows what planning is been done to tackle inclusive growth. All these areas become important for us. All the strategies, understanding all the strategies behind it becomes important. Now let’s look at some previous year’s questions from this topic.
Capitalism as a tool for inclusive growth. Can we use capitalism for inclusive growth; by understanding inclusive growth we can answer this question well, what it means we can answer this question well. We can also look at some of the limitations of the capitalism, what are the advantages of capitalism and construct a very beautiful answer for this.
Again link to companies, how regulating the company’s can help us implement CSR. Can help us achieve inclusive growth. Clearly this question is actually another version of this question. This question again is link to another question. Capitalism is not enough sometimes we need regulation as well. That is what these questions together are trying to tell us, the focus seems to be how to achieve inclusive growth by good regulation. So that kind of questions is what is coming from this area. So what are sources and the way forward? Economic survey is vital various govt. programs with the original documents as well as refer the videos. Why and how is important. How is the govt. program going to be done and why is that program required. Those are the areas you should focus on. Current affairs related to inclusive growth. Be always aware of anything that is related to poverty, anything that is related to some segments being left behind, displacements. Dam being built and people being displaced those kinds of issues. And India year book again becomes very important source. So even an essay on this is a potential question, because it links together so many important issues. So we can have a holistic essay coming from this.
Now the 3rd subtopic under this becomes budgeting. Which is a very conceptual part of the syllabus? So different budgetary concepts, process of govt. budgeting. This part you can even link to the polity concepts of how the parliament works etc. so highly conceptual part. Directly looking at the video should be more than enough for this part. Challenges and salient features of the latest budget, so that there we look at a bit of current affairs comes in.
Now look at the previous year’s questions to understand how this works. What is the reason for the FRBM be a fiscal responsibility and budget management act? What is salient features effectiveness? So it is very much linked to the concept of budget and latest development in budget making.
Tax expenditure, which is another question asked, very simple question but very conceptual question. So that is the type of question we can expect from this part of the syllabus. Some of sources any standard economics book would actually do for this part, this will always be covered well. The Byjus economics lectures covers this in good details and that is more than enough. Budget documents for the latest developments and economic survey for the latest developments. Strong conceptual understanding is required that is the most important part; once you have the concepts clear you can easily understand this budget. Once the concepts are clear then understanding the budget is a cake walk. So understand the concepts well and then just look at the current affairs understand, just have a quick understanding of what the govt. is doing right now.
The fourth segment becomes agriculture there we are focusing on crops and on farming. So major crops, cropping patterns different types of irrigation, irrigation systems, transport marketing and some of the constraints limiting agriculture. How can we use technology to overcome those constraints the same logic playing out if you can see? So focus areas are cropping patterns. Now how is minimal support price distorting cropping patterns, how people cultivating more of one crop than the other because govt. is promising to buy it. Reasons behind the different cropping patterns. Here it is linked to geography, history also. Map based knowledge becomes very important here. Make sure you look at geography lectures to understand this part. Effect of irrigation on cropping patterns. How the irrigation comes about? What are the controversies related to irrigation, those become very important focus areas. And about irrigation itself canal, well, tank the different types of irrigations the pros and cons of the different types of irrigations, especially tube well and drip irrigation another important technology. What are the new technologies that can help us tackle some issues, those become important focus areas. Then we have to look at the policy area – the APMP, the model APMC, and the controversies related to the APMC act. What are the constraints due to the existing policy framework, what solutions we can come up with? What recent changes are happening, about the policy framework? This is primarily about how the farmer’s products are brought to the market. The marketing aspect of it. So this area becomes about how to sell the I will say produce. This is primarily about the production part; this is primarily about distribution part. So both of them are focus areas. Then finally technological solutions. How can we bring in technology to solve some of the problems? Soil health card scheme, people are overusing fertilizers but what is required for soil only we should give soil health card. Weather forecasting, how we can improve weather forecasting and give insurance. Help the farmers plan ahead etc. different types of seeds, the high yielding varieties the GM gross controversy. Price discovery mechanism such as fieserhrs market and forwards market having a commodity market scheme and how that helps. This all becomes important focus areas from which we can expect questions. So let’s look at previous year’s .questions and the way forward. APMC as a cause of food inflation was a question that came. This is because the distribution is being distorted by apmc, so it might cause not enough food material to reach the market. The farmers getting discouraged etc. because of the mandi system not being efficient. So that kind of answer can be constructed here. To understand the concept of inflation and the concept of apmc and the problems and solutions with it and a very easy question to answer. Very high scoring question if you had understood the concepts beforehand. So what are the sources NCERT class X and an extra NCERT being discussed here Geography Resources and Development, because this will give you a good map based knowledge about irrigation, about the different cropping patterns etc. an important , source. Apmc act, eco survey has a chapter on apmc which is again discussed in a video, please have a look at that, recent changes about this newspaper will give you those understanding about cropping pattern and irrigation, very very standard, very basic concepts, so any of the standard books that is Majid Hussain, Khullar or any Std. Indian Geo book will help you with that. Notes on this topics are important because these are factual stuff, hard to keep that in mind, make sure you make good notes and revise them well. This good scoring areas again because direct conceptual questions are what can be expected here, see very direct conceptual question that came.
So now let’s look at some of the policy measures in agriculture. What policy measures govt. can take? Direct and indirect farm subsidies. Minimum support prices, PDS- ration card systems what are the objectives, how it factions, what are the limitations. And how buffer stock, food security problems and technology, how can you use technology to solve some of those problems and animal rearing some of the related areas of agriculture. So focus areas are subsidy, very big important focus area because we are trying to reduce subsidy in lot of thing s such as LPG, fertilizers etc, minimal support price. And direct benefit transfer. These are hot topics right now, very hot topics. Public distribution system, how it has been reformed, how the food corporation of India has been reformed. What kind of food security issues related to this such as food wastage, food shortage etc. Shanta Kumar committee report becomes an important source here. You can also look at some of the stories of how things have been implemented and people have benefited from it. All the technology missions related to improving as agriculture as vital so India year book has comprehensive section, you can go through that particular section. And economics of animal rearing which is an associated area to agriculture, so any govt. intervention any schemes should be export vs. create our own markets. Somehow these things become focus areas. So previous years questions from this area. The food security bill has generated one question, so what were the WTO concerns related to it. So primarily it is about subsidy. WTO does not allow countries to give certain kinds of subsidies, so understanding subsidy you would have easily been able to tackle this question. Here this is a direct question of what kind of subsidies is being given, and what are the affects of those subsidies? Just by understanding the concept of subsidy well, easy question to answer. Question related to pink revolution has been asked which is part of the govt. program to improve production, different variety of things, so we have different revolutions. So make sure you use India year book and govt. websites to keep a track of what areas govt. is focusing on. Which products govt. wants to improve? What are the sources for this? Eco. Survey has a good section on subsidies, so it becomes very important. It also discusses PDS, another important place, Santa Kumar committee report becomes very important any current important happening newspapers and all the other technology missions using India year book and make sure you also use the internet well here. Make sure you revise these areas well because different missions and facts etc mission becomes important here. Make sure you are updated on all the issues.
So next issue is food processing, which is after production, after distribution the final processing of food. Adding value to it. So what is the scope? What is the significance? What is the location wise, only in some area certain kind of processing happens? What are the requirements? How to manage it well, the supply of it. All these things become important. So focus areas what is food processing we should understand? Why it is important we should understand. What is the meaning of backward and forward linkages we should understand? Which means food processing here what are the forward linkages to the further chains and the backward linkages to the production part, ——–. Those things become important. Scope and significance, food processing in India is in a nascent stage, a lot of potential is there to improve and grow fast, and this will lead to lot of reducing in wastage etc so helps on food security, so this is why food security is a vital vital area. What are the success factors? Are there any success stories? What are the things which we can do; those also become good focus areas.
Domestic vs. export markets become very important discussion here. This can also be tied in with make in India discussion. So that also becomes another focus area. Should most of food processing be domestic or domestic consumption, should we be also doing more for export markets. Can we do a lot of export led growth in food processing; those are some of the issues that can be discussed. Different govt. schemes, again becomes very important. So sources, strategic plan by the ministry of food. What is the strategy plans for the food processing ministry, their website, their different reports becomes useful sources. And all the different organizations, such as CCI, ICC, IBEF, ASSOCHAM, etc. will have their own reports being put out, so Google them in this area, internet is you best friend. So in general in the syllabus as well current affairs focused, leverage internet, if you have access to it makes sure you utilize it well.
The 7th is land reform. The 7th subtopic is land reforms. Focus areas historical perspectives becomes very important here. Lot of linkage right back to independence of India. From permanent settlement, from permanent settlement of Bengal in the beginning of 20th century till the recent LARR act in 21st century. The entire perspective becomes important. And why are there controversies about recent changes, the ordinance that came and lapse etc. so those also become important focus areas. The bhoodan moment again linked to independence discussion. Questions have come on this, another focus area so previous years questions, the latest act, the different issues will it address or not, basically we have to analyze that. So if you have understood the larr act well, very simple question to answer. So this is a very comprehensive question which discusses land reforms, importance of that and why it has not worked as well and what can be done. So by just understanding the concept and the history of it is again becomes a potentially high scoring question. So sources any standard history book will give you a full perspective, so you can look at India since independence by bipin Chandra by NCERT books etc. are good sources for this. And also byjus videos have covered this comprehensively. For larr act itself you have to read the act itself and make good notes. The PIB website is good for all act related topics. Any act you want to understand PIB will give you a simple one page summary so you can use that. So to establish linkages between the whatever land reforms happening and to growth, because it is part of Indian economy syllabus. So focus is all about growth inclusive growth and sustainable growth. So how can land reforms make sure those things happen? So that linkage has to be maintained in you thought process whenever you study. So again high scoring potential.
So 8th subtopic is LPG reforms, liberalization, privatization, globalization, so what are the effects, how those policy changes is affected in economic growth. So here we are effectively looking at how economic growth can react drastically to policy changes. So this segment shows policy is important. So previous year’s questions.
The fdi, lpg is about liberalization, so new fdi coming in etc, becomes an important focus area here, so fdi entry, what is the impact of that? A simple question had been asked. By understanding what meaning of LPG and the history and the overall progress of these things we will be able to answer these questions well. This is a question that asked even though we allowed Fdi why is fdi not picking up. So there we have to discuss what extra reforms are required, so that kind of a question can also come which is a future oriented question. Rational behind GST and delay in its roll out, another important question related to reform because we are rationalizing our tax structure, we are making it more liberal, to that why do you want to do it? And how will it make our reforms even better? That kind of question can come. So what are the sources? Economics survey becomes one of the most important sources for this part. Because it’s primarily about reforms. And any standard book for Lpg and byjus videos on economics is also good source for this because it’s comprehensively covered there.
The 9th topic is Infrastructure. Here we look at the energy, ports, roads, airports, railways etc. how to improve the infrastructure of the country, so focus areas again economic survey analyzes all these, India year book will give you good data, and all the schemes would be there. The current happenings you will get from newspapers, any current controversies, any extra work on railways such as high speed railways etc. that you will get from news papers. And railways you can also have a look at Bibek Debroy report, which is a very useful report on analyzing where it should be heading. Different ministry website, each of them has their own ministries so the ministry’s website you can have a look at. One e.g. of previous year question about urban transport policy. And how govt. strategies help it, so very simple question, if you understand these things you can directly apply them here and answer them.
Investment models are about how to invest? We want to do all these things but everything requires money to go in. how to put that money in that is this part of the syllabus. How should money go? Should only govt. put, should only private sector put, should govt. and private sector put. What are the different investment models possible? So focus areas are different strategies, public private partnership, build operate transfer, all these becomes important, different models we can try out to invest well, invest in what? Invest in growth infrastructure etc. what are the need for public private partnership in India. Public sector will be giving it focus. Private sector will be giving the investment and management capacity. What are advantages, disadvantages, those things become important. The economic survey has done great analysis on this. It’s an important question that came was how PPP sometimes keeps on dragging too much. So how can we improve PPP that is a simple question? So, economic survey analysis is linked very much to this, if you have read that well this becomes an easy question to answer. Pros and cons of PPP model. Just the understanding PPP itself this becomes a very simple question to answer. So there are guide books put out by govt. which we can read. Economic survey has a wonderful analysis as discussed. This could be a good source. And this toolkit, there is a website here that you can use the website and have a look at tool kit. This gives an understanding of how to create a PPP toolkit. How the private sector can be brought in and made to understand exactly what is required. So in effect our sources can be summarized very simply extent. NCERTs, very important for basic concepts plus byjus videos for slightly higher level concepts also, all std books cover the concepts. So concepts can completely be covered by NCERTs, the videos and the std text books. And current affairs we have India year book, economic survey, and ministry websites. Along with that the bijus class’s current affairs video releases will help you keep up to date. So this will cover the entire economy section.
Now let’s look at the environment part which is part part II, subtopic under I the first subtopic is pollution and conservation. Conservation, environmental pollution, degradation impact. How do we assess how much impact is happening, so growth causes environmental impact, so can we asses this impact, how do we asses it? And once we assess it how can we control some of the unnecessary things being done, as part of growth? So that we can have sustainable growth. That is the logic behind this part of the syllabus. So focus areas become environment impact assessment. What is the process behind it? How is it done? What’s the need behind it? This is a very basic part. Completely, comprehensively covered in our video, and understand what economic impact assessment means. And how is it done? Basics of environment ecology. This you must have done for prelims and it is already there, in good detail in the videos, you can easily use them and also available std text books. So nothing to worry about in this part. We have to have a special focus on the different pollutants; pollutants mean the things that cause pollution. And different acts to control pollution air pollution act, water pollution act, you have to have focus on that. Special rulings. Whatever ngt is doing and Supreme Court is doing, these are two organizations that are really talking environment being degraded in India. The green tribunal and Supreme Court, so their activities, current affairs focus have to be there. Climate change the different organizations, the different treaties, India’s stand on climate change. What is our contribution? What are we saying about climate change, those things become important? About carbon emissions, —————-protocol about all these issues. One important consequence of industrial growth is reserves get polluted, so the Namami Gange program and other programs which helps to conserve the reserve also becomes important focus area. Also a hot topic because of controversy around it. So sources can be all the current happenings, current events are very important this part, newspaper, yojana, kurukshetra will give you good understanding. Some of the std material would be NIOS, IGNOU material on Environment-Biodiversity India yearbook another good source. Official site of ministry of Environment and forest, their guidelines etc. any std book on environment for basics or byjus video would suffice for this. Concept wise it is very easy, current affairs you just have to keep up to date. So check video on air pollution, which is the hot topic in pollution for this year. So previous year’s questions on this topic, this is about the climate change and how we have tried to stop it. The carbon credits discussion, discussed in the videos, you can have a look at that. How it works? Why it did not work? And what can be done to improve it. Typical structure of a question. How does it work? What are the problems? And how we can improve it? And that is how we should structure in the answer. Impact of coal. Use coal for development, but what are the impacts? What kind of hydro electricity project can make the impact less? Another kind of question related to impacts. Consequences again impact, go and no go zones how we can solve some of those impacts by putting good policy frameworks in place. As you can see questions are usually coming based on some activities happening. What are the impacts? And how can we reduce the impact a little bit? So again national water policy. How can we combat pollution, how are we trying to manage hazardous wastes, which is the consequence of development etc. so the entire structure seems to be how to stop things. So you have to think on those lines to answer this kind of questions.
Now we come to Part III: Science and Technology. So first subtopic is awareness of developments, the current affairs, whatever new things that are happening you should be up to date on that. The different fields such as IT, space, computers, nano- technology, different fields you should be up to date because without being up to date, how can you apply them. So previous years questions, distinguish between copyright, patents and etc because this helps people invest. People don’t invest unless patent measures etc are there. So that becomes one potential question. India’s patent law, what is case related to patent case, intellectual property right become important. This is some of the questions that have come from this field. So current happenings, newspapers such as science reporter, Hindu S&T section which usually comes on Thursdays another good source. We have YouTube videos – science monitor as a good source, any std science and tech book on computers, robotics etc. should be enough for the basics, for the concepts, but you have to keep up to date on the current events as well.
Applications. How can we use the latest technology and apply them in real life. Application based things, so a quick look at the previous year’s questions show how it is all application based. Antibiotics, what are the problems that can be caused by it, how can we stop those problems, what are the mechanisms available for controlling and monitoring them? Applying the technology of medicine. Again another question linked to the same question, similar kind of question. Umpire decision review system. Its high technology, camera infra technology etc being used applied in sports, so a question based on that. Digital signature, another important IT technology, which is being used, which has a daily application so what is it and what are the features of it? 3D printing what is the advantages and disadvantages another new technology, which is coming into real life, a question came on that. And a material called FRP, what is the manufacturing process? Another applied question. So most of this is technology based question. Science based question more related to intellectual property. So what we have seen is that most of the technology based questions are application based whereas science question seems to be process based, legal framework, patent law, etc. Both aspects make sure concepts are clear and you are up to date on the latest controversies such as Novartis case. In addition to this, as far as sources are concerned for you the starting point should be India Yearbook. India yearbook lists out all the things that are happening inside the technology to great extent. In addition to that, the Hindu science section would be sufficient. A bit of Internet digging will help out a lot. Keep an alert for science and technology follow some of the important science and technology newspapers, magazines etc. now before we move on to the next subtopic we can classify the questions that come in application science and technology, only 2 types can come, first type is applied for helping the poor and down trodden. So helping the poorer segments how can we use technology there? So here the e.g. should be public health. Technology related to public health becomes important. Multi drug resistance the patent laws, the drug combination are coming from that area. So anything related to health becomes very important. Anything that can impact health. 2nd anything related to agriculture. Any technology that can improve agriculture becomes an important question, because it can help inclusive growth. Next is any technology linked to education? So —————— is becoming very important right now, so education related technology, and ideas also become important. 2nd category has mass application becomes important, so example becomes would be IT, 3D printers etc. so primarily the applied could be helping health education, agriculture or mass application which is directly impacting our daily life. So technology has to either have an impact on some of these important areas or it should have impact on our daily lives. Then the question can come, so keep that formula in mind when you study this part.
So last subtopic under science and technology, Indian achievements. What are our contributions? So previous years questions have been how liberalization of fdi has in defense helped. Here we can talk about, ISRO and drdo and how some of advances linked to policy changes. What is causing scientific research to have problems how can we solve those? So again ————-Indian contribution how to improve the contribution. So IDSA website has good analysis on this, India Yearbook has good analysis on this, and current happenings and current discussions you should follow those. Defense procurement policy linked to this, so we can have a look at that as well as source in this segment.
Now we come to part IV: disaster management. So the focus areas understand different hazards, natural hazards, what is a crisis? How to have a crisis management strategy? What is the current strategy of govt. of India? What are the different types of hazards earthquake, tsunami, floods, and droughts? Different methods for managing each of them. All this covered in great details in the videos. You can quickly go through them. Within a few hours you would have covered the entire syllabus of disaster management. It is very easy, highly scoring topic. What is disaster management act 2005? What does it say? What is approach under it, what is the arrangement under it, what are different aspects of disaster management? What are each of these words mean, what do they entail, and how can we do those things very basic syllabus, very basic concepts.
Previous year’s questions. What are the guidelines of national disaster management authority, and how was India preparing to deal with El-Nino? We are trying to have growth, but if el Niño comes, the whole growth might get compromised, so how can we prepare for it? How can we reduce the impact simple kind of question, exactly according to the logic of the paper? What is the importance of risk assessment? How do we do disaster management? If you understand this part, this becomes direct high scoring question for us. So what are our sources? Disaster management act. 2nd ARC reforms commission has put out a report on disaster management. Wonderful source you can use that. And you can also use the byjus videos for it. So you can also have a look at recent disasters, what are the causes, Nepal earthquake we have done a video please have a look at that. So these kinds of things you are going to keep updated on but make sure you are looking at what are the causes and what could have been done and what we should do next time it happens. That should be the focus that should be the way in which you think. Make sure you don’t only restrict yourself to natural disasters; manmade disaster is also possible so have a look out for those as well. So things like Bhopal gas tragedy becomes important because an anniversary is coming up, and whenever an anniversary comes up question potential is there to come. So manmade and natural disasters.
So now we will come to the 5th part, which are security issues, high scoring potential, because very, very concrete answers can be given and the syllabus conceals more that what it reveals. If you look at the syllabus, it will seem very easy. But it has so many linkages, if you have to be able to process those things that are what you have to focus on. So first you get to know syllabus, then you will make sure current focus you understand that, questions are all common sense questions, very much based on the current focus, high scoring is possible, only thing is you should cover all facets and give focused answers. It is very easy to give a very global answer to this question, but you should understand exactly how the problem is coming and how you can solve it? What are the linkages to growth and planning to environment to science and technology and to disaster management? So what of these problems, where is the cause of the problem and then how we can attack the root of the problem. That kind of answer will make it high scoring. Only that kind of answer. That is what you have to cultivate, as you practice. So quick look at the syllabus, so this is the entire syllabus. The linkages is towards development, the link to economy, linkage to state and non state actors, how technology can sometimes create problems. Technology can not only solve problems but it can also have side effects. So science and technology segment also becomes important here because side effects of science and technology. And linkages with terror, border, national conflicts, etc. some of these issues can have spillover effects. And different agencies and their mandate. This is the entire syllabus. Good sources are Bijus videos, we have comprehensive videos on security issues, normally this is one ignored part of syllabus, but it’s a high scoring potential, so we have done a complete video section, so make sure you utilize that well. In addition to that ARC reports is there, Wikipedia is a useful source, IDSA is a useful source. And there are some books that are also available in the market, but this is a neglected section. So make sure you use the videos well.
So first segment development and extremism. Now if you don’t do development and only growth it can lead to problems that interlink age. So focus areas we will start from naxal movement from the beginning till today. Economic and social conditions of the region. How cause and effect analysis has to be done. What is causing the issues? What kind of development did not happen there? Did growth neglect some areas, was inclusive growth not done? All those aspects you should bring in. what are the govt.s response security management. How did govt. respond to extremism, was it a good response? Was it humane response, and will that response actually solve the fundamental issues of the region. Those things you need to analyze. What is the kind of solutions possible; can we solve it in this social and economic development? Can we solve it with brute force; just put in a lot of army and police there can we solve it? Can we do it through dialog? Can we do it through good governance? What are the pros and cons of different measures? Something’s might be short term vs. long term, different aspects. Role of panchayat and grassroots democracy. Can that have an impact, all these things you need to focus on. And currently extremism in north east and Nepal is in focus area. So what are the linkages? And the Myanmar, Manipur, naga area there, and what are the problems that are happening there. Those are the problems you should be focusing on as you read newspapers etc. so here you can look at things like PISA, the panchayat ——————-47.12————-problems in tribal area. Why do problems come in tribal areas, because we are neglecting development? The forests right act. How can we make the tribal’s feel part of the country, through democracy and giving them rights? So these issues you have to focus on. So let’s look at some of the previous year’s questions as we can clearly see the tribal area has been an important question, way forward, look at the cause-effect analysis how to solve these problems always. As you start from cause what are the effects of actions, various solutions, pros and cons. The govt. initiative, look at these things. Success stories can also be used, so India yearbook some of the magazine articles etc will give you good success stories. So here human element might bring in good marks. Second id terrorism, so we know what is terrorism? Different types of terrorism? What causes terrorism? Could be because of nationalist movement, religion could cause. Ideology could cause, state might sponsor it. Could be because of narcotics, because of market, it could also be because of development. So different things can lead to terrorism. What is causing it again? Cause effect analysis. What are the different features of terrorism? What are the Indian laws, linked to terrorism? Are they inadequate? What can be done to improve them? And what are the solutions we can look yet? What is the link to black money? Prevention of Money laundering acts, so what are the link to terrorism and black money? Which is again linked to growth and development, which is again linked to economy and policy making etc. so this interlink age becomes very important in this part of syllabus. What are the international actions being taken, how are countries cooperating? The current example such as ISIS, pak sponsored terrorism; this is what you should be keeping your focus on. Previous year Questions. No direct questions have come yet. But, we have to focus on things like why a particular type of terrorism is happening and how to solve it. International terrorism what are the causes, solutions etc. ISIS becomes an important focus area this year. Current affairs ARC report IDSA briefs; these become good sources to tackle this part of the syllabus.
So role of State and non state actors, there are different things that are linked together, narcotics, terrorism , naxalist, some insurgencies are linked to each other, understand the interlink ages between all these. Now we come to the technology aspect, media & technology can also have some bad consequences. So what are the challenges posed by communications network. Challenges because of the technology. Communication network being used instead of being used well they are being used for bad purposes such as, propaganda, financing, generating money, training people, putting up training videos, for planning through communication network, execution of etc. how is technology being misused? Keep an eye out for that. And what is the role of media, in all this. Media should do unbiased reporting. Not cause problems, should have self regulations, should be accountable to people, and it should not have strategic problems such as, suppose army is doing an important operation and media goes and covers it, that is a strategic problem there. Now the terrorist organization will know exactly what is going on there. So media has to be more self regulated when it comes to this type of issues. Social networks, what are their features and threats? How can they be used and misused and can they be used well also? These things need to be getting focused on. So previous year question have come on social networking sites, and there security implications. Cyber warfare a question has come. Impact of radicalization of India, and how is it connected to communication network. So how ISIS is using twitter, facebook, online recruitment etc. can be discussed as part of this question. So what is the way forward? Just keep updated on the current affairs. And you should have balanced views, technology is important but it has side effects. So we should have freedom of press at the same time, it should be self regulated, make sure that things don’t go overboard. How to achieve that fine balance should be the focus of your answers. So there is no particular book that focuses on this we have videos coming on these issues as and when they come forwards, so good common sense, understanding of the concepts and current affairs knowledge should be enough for this part of it.
Cyber security is a linked area, linked to technology again. So computer can be useful thing at the same time it can be bad thing also. Target, weapon, accessory etc. cyber crime can include hacking, child porn, malware, virus attack, copyright issues, denial of service, all these issues, how to tackle keep an eye on these. Cyber attach what does that mean, china it has been the focus of china causing cyber attacks etc. those issues you should have a focus on. Cyber warfare what does it mean? How can we tackle it? Cyber terrorism etc. what are international methods being done to counter these things how can we have confidentiality, integrity and availability at the same time. Because data collection will lead to big brother as watching us kind of scenario. How to provide people, privacy at the same time, give them security, that becomes another important nexus area. Specifically India’s policy, you should have a clear understanding of those. And some of the international regulations and bodies. So previous years questions cyber warfare larger threat than terrorism, came in 2013, so direct application of what we have been discussing. Way forward know the basics India yearbook becomes a good source, because they have put out all the discussions on cyber warfare what is India doing? Schemes etc. then current affair focus. Special focus on cyber warfare by state actors. State-sponsored cyber warfare. Please keep a special focus on that.
So black money another very important issue. Linked to all this because everything requires money. Where is the money coming from, how is that linkage happening? What type of policy measures can be done? Definition process of black money. Why India is so vulnerable to it? What kind of prevention can be done? What laws are there? What kind of prevention can be done? What laws are there? What are international efforts – financial action task force FATF? What are they doing? Is India signatory? What is India’s role? What are the different ways of tax, money laundering happening? What is black money? How is it generated? Previous year’s questions. Let’s look at previous years questions how is money laundering a threat to economic sovereignty of the country. India will lose the control over our own monetary policy if we allow this to happen. Consequences of it how can we stop it? That kind of questions? Way forward focus on the PMLA and the different solutions we are trying out and also have a look out for the current black money discussions going on with Switzerland, Swiss bank etc. the actions by Indian govt. and make sure that money laundering is reduced. All these things are important focus areas as of this year.
Now border areas and security challenges there. So different border skirmishes, different drug trade, arm trade. How to put in military? How to take them out? Exfilteration, infilteration, narco terrorism which is linked to drugs again. Left wing terrorism- which is linked to ideological terrorism. What are issues happening there. What are the issues of indo Bangladesh border, illegal migration issues happening in that front? Important specific issues to focus on. So border area development program. There is a program by Indian govt.? How is that functioning? What is the meaning of that? Along with that not just land border, you should also focus on coastal security, maritime and airspace as well. You should also protect the coastal air boundaries as well. So make sure you focus on that as well preparing from current affairs etc. and while making your notes. Previous years question. Porous border and what are the internal security challenges arising from that. Illegal Tran’s border migration, how can we stop that? Important question this year because of Syrian refugee crisis, migration is a very important hot topic this year. Western border of India and migration issues happening there. Golden triangle and crescent to geographic areas in between which India is there, middle east and south Asia, both of them are having a lot of terrorist activities and unstable political environment and India is in the middle so if refugee crisis happens a lot of will come to India, so India has to be prepared for it. So our porous border has to be better monitored. So those kinds of issues become important. So what are the links between organized crime and terrorism? Again drug trade, human trafficking, fake currency, corruption interlink ages. What characterizes organized crime that has link to terrorism? When does organized crime and terrorism go hand in hand, usually because, state sponsored terrorism, a failed state can lead to something called black hole syndrome where all law and order breaks down, then crime and terrorism will have coexistence, cooperation and confluence. Which means effectively the people who are doing the crime and the people who are doing terrorism and the people who are doing governance are all the same. So that kind of issues where are they happening? In countries like Afghanistan, al-Qaida etc. are e.g. of this. So we should have a focus on this as well.
So overall we can say make sure you don’t go all over the place, don’t try to read too many books etc at this time, so limited sources, make sure you use the comprehensive focused videos, make sure you use std text books, make sure you use sources like the India yearbook, economic survey so you can have a focused approach. You should create nice good notes so you can revise well. Make sure you subscribe to all India test paper series to practice answer writing and get really good feedback and also where you stand in respect to rest of the country. Revise again and make sure everything is syllabus focused. Keep the syllabus is front of you always. Make sure everything is linked to that. And if you do all that well, we can be sure that you can sprint well and reach the finish line. All the best. Thank you for watching.