IAS Preparation – Medieval Indian History: The Mughal Dynasty
This is all the similarities. But there are differences as well. The dome of Taj is much higher and loftier and thinner than the tomb of Humayun’s, which is thicker, heavy and bulky. Taj is completely white whereas Humayun’s tomb is partly red and partly white, only its dome is completely white. Taj is having four minarets; Humayun’s tomb did not have any minarets. So because of the basic structure of Taj is very much taken from Humayun’s tomb so it is called prototype of Taj Mahal and it was designed by an Iranian architect Mirak Mirza and undoubtedly this building is one of the finest buildings built by mughals its still very much in good shape and declared by UNESCO as world heritage building as in Delhi Qutb Minar and red fort along with Humayuns tomb are three world heritage buildings, you must make a list of all the world heritage sites and buildings in India regularly asked in different competitive exams. What is the rule for this instance, no construction is allowed within 100 km radius of a particular building is declared a particular world heritage, and UNESCO definitely helps it gives the financial and technical help to the local body like ASI which in India operated under ministry of culture. All these types of questions are very much interlinked so you must be very careful. Now, Akbar, Jahangir and Shajahan- the three great mughals who contributed a lot in the field of architecture. There are some basic things which you have to understand before I start other domes and buildings. One such thing is that mughals were indeed rich and the richness is shown in their buildings just like you can easily see rich man’s house is very much visible from the very house itself- that how rich he is. So the kind of mughal buildings who we have shows the richness. Its strength, grandeur is very much visible from the distance, as you must have noticed most of the buildings are raised from a high-rise platform very lofty still bigger than any other surroundings in modern day time. This is also because the mughal empire was very strong and very big and that is shown in their building. Will organize in great detail all the works very minutely – every work is done it appears that with great thought and this is only because it was all very well-planned. So there was not any haphazard thing like the buildings built before the mughals. Once a model was finalized, no change was possible during the course of constructions unlike the building which was built before this. Only Firuz Shah Tughlaq it was believed was so much serious in the such details in Delhi sultanate otherwise the buildings built before the mughals had lot of changes in between and then that is why the symmetry that we can see in the mughal buildings are unparalleled and unmatched in history of architecture in India. Then, the best brains were involved and they invited people from different parts of the world- whether its Italy or iran or central aisa. The best of materials they used- whether binding materials, construction materials and beautification materials in the form of precious and semi-precious stones. Also garden and essential part of the building especially the tomb, and that was very well planned not only for beautification but also based on a concept that heaven in Islamic world is described as full of gardens. So t mughal kings wanted to replicate heaven in earth. So in most of the case, when a tomb was constructed whether the Akbar’s tomb at Sikkandra near Agra or Jahangir’s tomb in Lahore, famous at Shahdara or whether Taj Mahal itself it is all situated in a beautiful garden, and that was not only for beautification but to give a heavenly look as I told you that in Islamic history heaven has been described as full of gardens.