Food is consumed by all living organisms for growth, to repair, to maintain body temperature and various other purposes. The mode of consumption of food varies from cell to cell and organism to organism. In AP SSC Class 10 Biology Chapter 1 Nutrition, we discuss the mode of nutrition in autotrophs and heterotrophs.
Autotrophic organisms make their own food by a process called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process by which living plant cells that are comprised of chlorophyll, produce glucose and starch from carbon dioxide and water using sunlight. During the process, plants release oxygen as a waste product. The chemical equation of photosynthesis can be represented as follows:
The materials required for photosynthesis are:
- Carbon dioxide
- Photosynthetic Pigment
Following are the important events that occur in the chloroplasts during photosynthesis
- Conversion of light energy into chemical energy
- Splitting of water molecules
- Reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrates
Heterotrophic nutrition involves the intake of complex material prepared by other organisms. As the complexity of the organism increases different parts become specialized to perform different functions. Large complex food molecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, etc., are broken down into simpler molecules before they are absorbed and utilized by the animals. This process of breaking down of complex molecules into a simple molecule is called digestion. The human digestive system comprised of the alimentary canal and several organs,carries out the following functions
|Ingestion||Taking food into the body|
|Digestion||Breaking up of complex food substances into simple substances by specific enzymes. So that they can be used by the body.|
|Absorption||The passage of digested food through the walls of the alimentary tract (particulars in the small intestine ) into the circulatory system.|
|Defecation||The passage of undigested material from the body by the way of the anus.|
In the next section, let us look at a few chapter questions to better understand the concepts discussed in the chapter.
Class 10 Biology Chapter 1 Nutrition Chapter Questions
1. List the difference between autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic nutrition.
|Autotrophic Nutrition||Heterotrophic Nutrition|
|Food is prepared using carbon dioxide, sunlight and water||Food is obtained from other organisms|
|Chlorophyll is required||Chlorophyll not required|
|Food is generally produced during day time||Food is obtained at all times|
|All green plants and some bacteria have this type of nutrition||All animals and fungi have this type of nutrition|
2. What is malnutrition? Explain some nutrition deficiency diseases.
Consuming food that lacks one or more nutrients in the required amount is known as malnutrition. Common reasons for malnutrition are:
- Will full starvation
- Poor health
- Lack of awareness of nutritional habits
- Socioeconomic factors
A few nutrition deficiency diseases are:
- Kwashiorkor disease
3. During photosynthesis several events occur in the chloroplast? What are they?
Solution: During photosynthesis several events occurred in the chloroplast and they are:
1. Conversion of light energy to chemical energy
2. Splitting of water molecule
3. Reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrates
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