AP Class 10 Biology Chapter 9 Our Environment

The sum of biological and physical factors along with the chemical interactions that affect an organism is known as the environment. All components of biosphere interact with each other in an organized manner. This organised interaction assures the survival of an organism that may result in the gradual evolution of the respective organism in the biosphere.

Food Chain

In an ecosystem, the energy-rich food passes from producers to the consumers stepwise, with respect to their food relationships. A depiction of this is given below

AP Class 10 Biology Chapter 9 Our Environment

An example of the movement of food from organism to organism is

Grass → Grasshopper → Frog → Snake → Hawk

Ecological Pyramids

Apart from the food chains pyramids, ecological pyramids are another type of representations which show the flow of energy from one organism to another.

  • Pyramid of numbers depicts the population of organisms at each trophic level in a food chain.
  • Pyramid of biomass shows the availability of food as a source of energy at each trophic level in the food chain
  • Pyramid of energy represents the graphical model of energy flow in a community.

The depiction of all the pyramids listed above are given below

AP Class 10 Biology Chapter 9 Our Environment

Image 7.1 Pyramid of Numbers

AP Class 10 Biology Chapter 9 Our Environment

Image 7.2 Pyramid of Biomass

AP Class 10 Biology Chapter 9 Our Environment

Image 7.3 Pyramid of Energy

Steps Towards Prevention of Pesticides

The pesticides that we use to control pests have harmful effects on the ecology. It is impossible to completely prohibit the use of pesticides. A better solution would be to find effective methods of controlling pests which have far less harmful effects. Following are a few of the less harmful methods:

  • Crop Rotation
  • Biological control
  • Development of genetic resistant strains

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