Anatomy And Morphology Of Animal Tissues

Anatomy And Morphology Of Animal Tissues


The term anatomy is the study of the structure or internal workings of an organism.

What is Morphology

The term morphology mainly deals with the study of the forms and the external structures of any living organism, which includes the shape, size and the structure. There are three main types of morphology :

  • Cellular morphology
  • Tissue morphology
  • Organ morphology.

To have a better understanding of the anatomy and morphology of animal tissues, the example of a cockroach is used to demonstrate. Periplaneta Americana happens to be the most common species of cockroach. They are generally brown in color.

Let us learn in detail about the Anatomy and Morphology of a cockroach.

Anatomy and Morphology of Cockroach

Anatomy and Morphology of Cockroach

Compared to other insects, the cockroach morphology is easy to understand. The length of an adult cockroach generally ranges between 34 – 53 mm long with wings, extend beyond the tip of the abdomen in males. The cockroach includes all the basic body features including the eyes, a mouth, brain, heart, salivary glands, antennae, colon, reproductive system, gastric caeca, legs, mid-guts, esophagus, fat bodies, and malpighian tubules. These insects have a pair of eyes which possess more than a thousand lenses, allowing them to see multiple things at the same time. The body of the cockroach is segmented into three distinct regions, head, thorax, and abdomen. The external region of the cockroach’s body is covered with the brown colored hard exoskeleton, which is composed of chitin. In each segment, the exoskeleton has hard plates called as sclerites. There are two types of sternites – dorsal and ventral which are joined together by a thin and flexible articular membrane and is called as the arthrodial membrane.

When it comes to its anatomy, we begin with the alimentary canal that helps with digestion. It is further divided into foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The first is muscular and helps crush the food, the second secretes digestive enzymes and the last plays a role in the absorption of water and salts. The blood vascular system happens to be open and poorly developed. The respiratory system is a network of the trachea that opens through ten pairs of holes called spiracles and thin branching tubes carry oxygen to all parts. Now coming to the reproductive system, males and females have separate ones, hence dioecious. The male reproductive system of cockroach consists of a pair of testes from which a thin vas deferens arises. It opens into the ejaculatory duct which further opens into male gonopore. Male gonapophysis represents the external genitalia. These are made up of chitin and are asymmetrical. The sperms are stored in the seminal vesicles. These spermatophores are discharged during copulation. On the other hand, the female reproductive system of cockroach consists of two large ovaries and each ovary is formed of a group of eight ovarian tubules or ovarioles which contain a chain of developing ova. Oviducts from each ovary unite into a single median oviduct called the vagina, opening into the genital chamber.

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Practise This Question

In cockroach, the sclerites present on the dorsal side are called tergites.