500+ Words Essay on Natural Disasters
A natural disaster is defined as an event of nature, which overwhelms local resources and threatens the function and safety of the community. Natural disasters are the consequence of natural phenomena unleashing processes that lead to physical damage and the loss of human lives and capital. Earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, windstorms, floods and droughts are some examples of natural disasters. These disasters disrupt the lives of communities and individuals and the economic activity of the affected area. Students must go through this essay on Natural Disaster and gather ideas to write effective essays on topics related to them. Practising essays on such topics will improve the writing skills of the students and help them score better in the English exam.
Classification of Natural Disasters
Natural disasters result from forces of climate and geology. These are perhaps the most “unexpected” and costly overall in terms of loss of human lives and resources.
Disasters are classified into four categories depending on how they arise:
(1) Internal Earth Processes: It covers geophysical phenomena arising from the internal processes of the earth. It includes earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions etc., which human beings cannot usually predict or prevent.
(2) External Earth Processes: These comprise phenomena such as landslides, collapses, flooding, mudslides etc. These hazards can be avoided and are often associated with man-made alterations in the environment, such as deforestation on hillsides or excavations and many more such activities.
(3) Hydrometeorological Hazards: It is associated with changes in air and ocean temperature. This hazard is responsible for the formation of weather phenomena such as hurricanes and tornadoes, and the precipitation and climate variations that sometimes cause extreme flooding, storm surges, droughts and other hydrological phenomena.
(4) Biological Hazards: Biological disasters result from the proliferation of agents such as bacteria, viruses and toxins that can kill or disable people, harm animals, and crops and damage the environment. Some examples of biological hazards are cholera, dengue, yellow fever, Ebola virus and Marburg virus. The current pandemic situation due to Coronavirus is also an example of biological hazards.
Disasters have massive human and economic costs. They may cause many deaths, severe injuries, and food shortages. Most incidents of severe injuries and deaths occur during the time of impact, whereas disease outbreaks and food shortages often arise much later, depending on the nature and duration of the disaster. Anticipating the potential consequences of disasters can help determine the actions that need to be started before the disaster strikes to minimize its effects.
Disasters are the ultimate test of a community’s emergency response capability. There are 3 major steps that can be taken to manage disaster which include pre-disaster management, during-disaster management and post-disaster management. The pre-disaster management involves generating data and information about the disasters, preparing vulnerability zoning maps and spreading awareness among the people about these. Apart from these, disaster planning, preparedness and preventive measures are other steps that need to be taken in vulnerable areas.
During disasters, rescue and relief operations such as evacuation, construction of shelters and relief camps, supplying of water, food, clothing and medical aids etc. should be done on an emergency basis. Post-disaster operations involve rehabilitation and recovery of victims. It should concentrate on capacity building in order to cope with future disasters, if any. These measures have special significance to India as about two-thirds of its geographical area and an equal proportion of its population are vulnerable to disasters. The Government of India has also taken some steps for disaster management such as passing the disaster management bill and the establishment of the National Institute of Disaster Management.
Keep learning and stay tuned with BYJU’S for the latest updates on CBSE/ICSE/State Board/Competitive Exams. Also, download the BYJU’S App for interactive study videos.
Frequently Asked Questions on Natural disasters Essay
What are the types of natural disasters?
Floods/tsunamis, wildfires, drought, hurricane/storms and earthquakes are examples for common natural disasters.
How can we control the impact of a natural disaster?
Impact of natural disasters can be mitigated to an extent by creating awareness among the public about counter measures to be taken. Governments could use disaster prediction technology and install warning systems to alert people about impending disasters. Implementing and enforcing building codes is another measure to reduce the after-effects of disasters.
How do natural disasters affect the environment?
Wildfires, floods, and tornadoes cause structural changes to our ecosystem and also damage the natural inhabitation of that area.