Bent Molecular Geometry

What is Molecular Geometry?

The three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in space responsible for the molecule’s shape is called its molecular geometry. It comprises bond angles, bond length, torsional angles, and all other geometrical parameters accountable for the shape of the atom.

It affects the colour, reactivity, polarity, and magnetism of the molecule.

What is Bent Molecular Geometry?

Bent molecular geometry is a kind of molecular geometry in which the central atom has two lone pairs of electrons and is associated with two bond pairs. It is also known as angular or V-shaped. Water (H2O), sulphur dichloride (SCl2), methylene (CH2), and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are examples of molecules having a bent geometry.

This section will discuss bent molecular geometry, angle, lone pairs, examples, and hybridisation of bent molecular geometry.

Table of Content

Bent Molecular Geometry Lone Pairs

Bent molecular geometry is a kind of molecular geometry in which the central atom has two lone pairs of electrons and is associated with two bond pairs. It is also known as angular or V-shaped. Water (H2O), sulphur dichloride (SCl2), methylene (CH2) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are examples of molecules having a bent geometry.

  • The name bent is derived from the fact that it is not linear but has a distorted bent or v like shape. It has two lone pairs and two bond pairs.
  • Due to the presence of lone pairs shape of a tetrahedral molecule is distorted.
  • AX2E2 is a general example of a V-shaped molecule. In It, two neighbouring atoms surround the central atom A.
No of Electron

Pairs

Arrangement of Electron Pairs Bond Pairs Lone Pairs Molecular Geometry
4 Tetrahedral

Bent Molecular Geometry

2 2 Bent or V-shaped or Angular

The hybridisation of Bent Molecular Geometry

Water (H2O), sulphur dichloride (SCl2), methylene (CH2) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are examples of molecules having a bent geometry.

The name bent is derived from the fact that it is not linear but has a distorted bent or v like shape.

Calculating hybridisation of water.

Hybridisation = Β½ X [(number of valence electron) + (number of monovalent atoms attached to the central atom) – (cationic charge) + (anionic charge)]

Hybridisation = Β½ X [6+2-0+0]

Hybridisation = 4

Hybridisation = sp3

  • Thus it will have two bond pairs and two lone pairs.

Bent Molecular Geometry Angle

In bent molecules, the bond angle is slightly less than 109.5∘. The decrease in bond angles is because the lone pairs occupy more space than the single bonds. Thus, lone pairs in a bent molecule take more space than the other tetrahedral angles, thus reducing the angle to slightly less than 109.5∘.

Bent Molecular Geometry Example

Water is the most common example of a bent molecule.

Name of the Molecule Water
Molecular Formula H2O
HybridizationType sp3
Bond Angle 104.5∘
Geometry Bent or V-shaped or Angular

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Frequently Asked Questions on Bent Molecular Geometry

Q1

What is molecular geometry?

The three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in space responsible for the molecule’s shape is called its molecular geometry. It comprises bond angles, bond length, torsional angles, and all other geometrical parameters accountable for the shape of the atom.

It affects the colour, reactivity, polarity, and magnetism of the molecule.

Q2

What is bent molecular geometry?

Bent molecular geometry is a kind of molecular geometry in which the central atom has two lone pairs of electrons and is associated with two bond pairs. It is also known as angular or V-shaped. Water (H2O), sulphur dichloride (SCl2), methylene (CH2) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are examples of molecules having a bent geometry.

Q3

What is the hybridisation and shape of the NH3 molecule?

Hybridisation = Β½ X [(number of valence electron) + (number of monovalent atoms attached to the central atom) – (cationic charge) + (anionic charge)]

Hybridisation = Β½ X [5+3-0+0]

Hybridisation = 4

Hybridisation = sp3

Thus, the NH3 molecule is sp3 hybridised and has a tetrahedral geometry. Due to the presence of lone pair, it acquires a pyramidal shape.

Q4

Why is the bond angle of water 104.5∘?

The bond angle of water is 104.5∘ , i.e. slightly less than 109.5∘. The decrease in bond angles is because the lone pairs occupy more space than the single bonds. Thus, lone pairs in a water molecule take more space than the other tetrahedral angles, thus the bond angle of water is 104.5∘.

Q5

Give examples of molecules having a bent geometry?

Water (H2O), sulphur dichloride (SCl2), methylene (CH2) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are examples of molecules having a bent geometry.

 

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