Hydrazine - N2H4

What is Hydrazine?

N2H4 is an inorganic compound with chemical name Hydrazine.

Hydrazine is also called as Diamine or Diazane or Nitrogen hydride and is a strong base. It is an azane and dangerously unstable. Each subunit of H2N-N is pyramidal and the N−N bond distance is about 1.45 Å.

Diamine in its anhydrous form, is a colourless, fuming oily liquid which smells like ammonia. It has a flash point value of 99°F. In case if traces of air is present during the process of distillation, it explodes. It is toxic and corrosive to tissues. When it undergoes combustion, it generates toxic oxides of nitrogen.

Properties of Hydrazine – N2H4

N2H4 Hydrazine
Molecular weight/molar mass of N2H4 32.0452 g/mol
Density of Hydrazine 1.021 g/cm3
Boiling Point of Hydrazine 114 °C
Melting Point of Hydrazine 2 °C

Hydrazine Structure – N2H4


Hydrazine structure

Hydrazine Structure – N2H4


Production of Hydrazine

Diamine can be obtained from hydrogen peroxide and ammonia in the ketazine process or Pechiney-Ugine-Kuhlmann process. The reaction is as follows:

2NH3 + H2O2 → H2NNH2 + 2H2O

Chloramine reacts with ammonia to generate nitrogen–nitrogen single bond and hydrogen chloride as by products. The reaction is as follows:

NH2Cl + NH3 → H2NNH2 +HCl

N2H4 Uses (Hydrazine)

  • Hydrazine is used as a propellant in space vehicles.
  • It is used as a precursor in several pharmaceutical products.
  • It is used as a reducing agent for selenium, arsenic, and tellurium
  • It is used as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling water reactor.
  • It is used in the process of electrolytic plating of metals on plastic and glass.
  • Used in the manufacturing of agricultural chemicals.
  • Used as a solvent for inorganic compounds.

Health Hazards

Usually the targeted organs which get infected are respiratory system, central nervous system (CNS), eyes, and skin. Chronic exposure can cause kidney and liver damage. Fire will generate corrosive, toxic and irritating gases. Its vapours can cause suffocation or dizziness.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is hydrazine used for?

Since the by-products are usually nitrogen gas and water, hydrazine is a convenient reductor. Therefore, it is used in water boilers and heating systems as an antioxidant, an oxygen scavenger and a corrosion inhibitor.

What is hydrazine made of?

Hydrazine, N2H4, is a highly reactive, flammable, colourless liquid with a smell close to that of ammonia. It’s primarily used in cancer research as rocket fuels, boiler water remedies, chemical reactants, drugs, and. Hydrazine is a chemical compound consisting of nitrogen and hydrogen atoms, which behaves like water.

Is Hydrazine a base?

Hydrazine as an Arrhenius base is a weaker base than ammonia since the more electronegative group NH2 has the-I effect on the neighbouring nitrogen’s lone pair of electrons, rendering it less important for protonation.

Why hydrazine is used as a rocket fuel?

Hydrazine is used as a rocket fuel, as it reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen gas and water vapour very exothermically. The heat released and the increase in the number of gas moles give a thrust. Hydrazine being combusted is an exothermic reaction.

Why is hydrazine unstable?

Hydrazine is a highly poisonous and potentially unstable substance that looks a little like ammonia-possibly because it is made from two ammonia molecules (with H2 loss) that are bound together. The formula is N2H4, and its composition somewhat resembles the distorted hydrogen peroxide composition.

Learn more about the Structure, physical and chemical properties of N2H4 from the experts at BYJU’S.

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