There are various substances which show magnetic behavior. We have substances that are attracted by the magnetic field and are called paramagnetic. This phenomenon is called paramagnetism. Paramagnetic property is only shown when the substance contains one or more unpaired electrons. When a substance acquires a permanent magnetic moment, it is known as ferromagnetic and the phenomenon is called ferromagnetism. On the other hand, we also have substances which are repelled by magnetic field and are called as diamagnetic substances. A substance shows diamagnetism when it contains only paired electrons.
Most of the transition elements show paramagnetic behavior. The unpaired electrons in (n-1) d orbitals are responsible for the magnetic properties. The paramagnetic character of the transition metals increases on moving from left to right as the number of unpaired electron increases from one to five. The middle elements are found to possess the maximum paramagnetic property. The magnetic properties decrease with the decrease in the number of unpaired electrons. The transition metals which contain paired electrons depict diamagnetic behavior.
Explanation for magnetic properties
An electron is a charged particle (negatively charged) which revolves around the nucleus and spins on its own axis. A magnetic field is generated due to the orbital motion and spin of the electron. The spinning of an electron in an orbit is very much similar to flow of electric current in a closed circuit. Therefore an unpaired electron is regarded as a micro magnet which has a definite magnetic moment. A substance which contains an unpaired electron when placed in a magnetic field interacts with the applied field. Consequently, an attractive force is exerted and paramagnetic property is shown. The number of unpaired electrons determines the magnitude of magnetic moment. Higher the number of unpaired electrons more is the magnetic moment and greater will be the paramagnetic behavior of the substance.
In the case of paired electrons, the electrons in each pair will have opposite spin. The magnetic field created by the electrons of same pair is equal and opposite in nature. Hence the magnetic field which is created by one electron is canceled by the other. So the net effect of the magnetic moment is zero. These kinds of substances show diamagnetic property and are repelled by the applied magnetic field.
So far we have seen the basic magnetic properties and the reason for this behavior. If you have any query on this topic then you can download Byju’s – The learning app for more information and other interesting content.