Physical and Chemical Changes
The term ‘matter’ refers to anything that has mass and occupies space. It is made up of tiny particles and has physical and chemical properties. Physical properties of matter include its appearance and observable properties. Some physical properties are colour, odour, taste, solubility, rigidity, fluidity, melting and boiling points, etc. A chemical property is a property exhibited during a chemical reaction. This includes pH, reactivity, inflammability, etc. Let’s learn about Physical and Chemical Changes, how they are related to physical and chemical properties.
Everything around us undergoes certain changes. Changes can be either physical or chemical.
When matter changes its observable properties, we can say it has undergone a physical change. Physical change is a type of change where the physical properties of matter change. A change of state of matter, change in colour, odour, solubility, etc. all are examples of physical change. During a physical change, neither the composition nor the chemical nature of matter is changed. During this change, molecules rearrange themselves without affecting the internal composition. A physical change doesn’t affect the chemical property.
A common example of physical change is the conversion of states of water. Ice, water, and steam are the three physical states of water. But all the three forms contain H2O. Other examples are whipping egg albumin, crushing of tomato, breaking of a bar magnet, etc.
Different substances have different chemical property. According to this property, substances show variation in their reactivity.
A chemical change is a type of change where the chemical properties of matter change. It is commonly called a chemical reaction. A chemical reaction results in a new product. During a chemical change, bonds between the molecules break and the composition of the substance change. In other words, chemical change leads to the breaking and making of bonds. Combustion, rusting, fermentation, etc. are a few examples of chemical change.
The following table shows major differences between a physical and chemical change.
|PHYSICAL CHANGE||CHEMICAL CHANGE|
|Change in physical property||Change in physical and chemical property|
|Reversible process||Irreversible process|
|Energy is neither absorbed nor evolved||Energy is either absorbed or evolved|
|No new product formation||New product is formed|
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