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Rocks and Minerals Questions

Rocks and minerals are found in the Earth’s outer layer. A rock is a solid collection of minerals. Both rocks and minerals have commercial value. Rocks are essential for their minerals, while minerals are widely used in the manufacturing industry.

A rock is any natural substance composed of solid crystals of various minerals fused together to form a solid lump. While a mineral is any naturally occurring inorganic mass having a specific composition and orderly arrangement of the atoms.

Definition: A rock is any natural substance composed of solid crystals of various minerals fused together to form a solid lump. In contrast, a mineral is any naturally occurring inorganic mass having a specific composition and orderly arrangement of the atoms.

Rocks and Minerals Chemistry Questions with Solutions

Q1. Sandstone is an example of which of the following rock

(a) Metamorphic rock

(b) Sedimentary rock

(c ) Igneous rock

(d) None of the above

Answer: (b) Sandstone is an example of sedimentary rock.

Q2. Which of the following is a plutonic rock?

(a) Granite

(b) Gneiss

(c ) Gypsum

(d) None of the above

Answer: (a) Granite is a plutonic rock.

Q3. Which of the following is made up of molten magma?

(a) Sedimentary rock

(b) Igneous rock

(c ) Metamorphic rock

(d) None of the above

Answer: (b) Igneous rock is made up of molten magma.

Q4. Limestone is an example of which of the following rock

(a) Metamorphic rock

(b) Sedimentary rock

(c ) Igneous rock

(d) None of the above

Answer: (b) Limestone is an example of sedimentary rock.

Q5. Which of the following is not an example of a metamorphic rock?

(a) Limestone

(b) Sandstone

(c ) Both (a) and (b)

(d) Neither (a) nor (b)

Answer: (d) Neither limestone nor sandstone are examples of metamorphic rock. Slate, marble and schist are some examples of metamorphic rock.

Q6. What is rock? Name different types of rocks?

Answer: A rock is any natural substance composed of solid crystals of various minerals fused together to form a solid lump.

We can differentiate rocks into three types, namely:

1. Igneous rock

2. Sedimentary rock

3. Metamorphic rock

Q7. What is a mineral? Name different kinds of minerals?

Answer: A mineral is any naturally occurring inorganic mass having a specific composition and orderly arrangement of the atoms.

Based on the amount, we can classify minerals into two types.

1. Macrominerals

2. Trace minerals

Q8. What is an igneous rock?

Answer: Rocks that are formed by the cooling and solidification of magma or the molten lava inside the earth are known as igneous rocks.

Granite and basalt are examples of igneous rock.

Q9. What are the different types of igneous rocks?

Answer: Based on the chemical differentiation of magma, we can classify igneous rocks into two types.

1. Mafic rock

2. Felsic rock

Based on the size and nature of crystals of igneous rocks, we can classify them into five types.

1. Phaneritic textured igneous rock

2. Orphan textured igneous rock

3. Equigranular textured igneous rock

4. Porphyritic textured igneous rock

Q10. What is sedimentary rock? Explain different types of sedimentary rocks.

Answer: Rocks that are formed by the accumulation of fragments by any exogenous means like ice, wind and sea are known as sedimentary rocks.

Sandstone, limestone and clay are examples of sedimentary rocks.

Based on the mode of formation of the sedimentary rock, we can classify it into three types.

1. Mechanically formed sedimentary rocks

2. Organically formed sedimentary rocks

3. Chemically formed sedimentary rocks

Q11. What is a metamorphic rock?

Answer: A rock that is formed by the modification in colour, consistency, hardness and arrangement of the pre-existing rocks is known as a metamorphic rock.

Marble, slate and schist are examples of metamorphic rock.

Q12. What is a metallic and non-metallic mineral? Give three examples of metallic and three examples of non-metallic minerals.

Answer: The mineral containing one or more metal elements is known as a metallic mineral. In contrast, the mineral that does not contain any metal element is known as a non-metallic mineral. No new product is generated by melting a non-metallic mineral.

Examples of metallic minerals

Iron, Copper, and Nickel.

Examples of non-metallic minerals

Marble, Dolomite and Clay.

Q13. How can we conserve minerals?

Answer: A mineral is any naturally occurring inorganic mass having a specific composition and orderly arrangement of the atoms.

We can preserve minerals by

1. Using minerals in a planned and sustainable manner.

2. Improving technology that may enable us to use low-grade ores at affordable prices.

3. By recycling metals.

Q14. Distinguish between anthracite and bituminous coal.

Answer:

S. No.

Anthracite coal

Bituminous coal

1.

It contains more than 80% of carbon.

It contains 60% to 80% of carbon.

2.

It is rigid, black and compact.

It is of a lower grade than anthracite.

3.

It is of superior quality.

It is of medium quality.

4.

It is found in Jammu & Kashmir.

It is found in Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal.

Q15. Match the following

Column I

Column II

Core

Used for roads and buildings

Minerals

Made of silicon and alumina

Rocks

Has definite chemical composition

Clay

Innermost layer

Sial

Changes into slate

Answer:

Column I

Column II

Core

Innermost layer

Minerals

Has definite chemical composition

Rocks

Used for roads and buildings

Clay

Changes into slate

Sial

Made of silicon and alumina

Practise Questions on Rocks and Minerals

Q1. Distinguish between metallic and non-metallic minerals.

Q2. What are veins and lodes?

Q3. What is a placer deposit?

Q4. Minerals are unevenly distributed in India. Justify your answer.

Q5. Distinguish between biogas and natural gas.

Click the PDF to check the answers for Practice Questions.
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