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Single bond, Double Bond and Triple Bond

What is a Chemical Bond?

Chemical Bonding refers to the formation of a chemical bond between two or more atoms, molecules, or ions to give rise to a chemical compound.

The two atoms can combine in different ways. One of the ways of forming bonds is sharing of electron to attain their nearest noble gas configuration. This way of bonding is known as covalent bonding and this is shown mainly by non-metals and H+.  Metals need more than 4 electrons for sharing in order to attain stable configuration which is not possible due to high energy involvement.

Table of Contents

Formation of Covalent Bond

Formation process of covalent bond between two atoms is as follows:

  1. The two atoms combine to become stable.
  2. The atoms become stable by losing energy.
  3. When the outermost shell of an atom is completely filled, then it is in the lowest energy state (which is due to maximum no. of exchange of energy between the electrons present in the degenerate orbitals).
  4. Hence, to attain stability, atoms achieve their nearest noble gas configuration.
  5. Now to attain their nearest noble gas configuration, they share required no. of electrons from single or multiple atoms. This leads to the formation of single bond, double bond or triple bond.

single bond

What is Single Bond?

When two atoms share one electron pair between each other, then they are said to be bonded by single covalent bond, denoted by single dash joining the atoms. For the formation of this bond, presence of an atom with single valency is required. The atoms with single valencies are halogens and hydrogen.

e.g. – Cl2, HCl, NH3 etc.

A single bond is indicated as AA or A-A in a Lewis structure, where A represents an element. Each dot in the first rendition represents a shared electron, whereas the bar in the second rendition represents both of the shared electrons in the single bond.

What is Double Bond?

When two atoms share two electron pairs between each other, they are said to be bonded by double covalent bond, denoted by double dash joining the atoms. The atoms with double valency are chalcogens or the oxygen family.

E.g.:- O2, CO2 etc.

A double bond is depicted as two parallel lines (=) between the two connected atoms in a skeleton formula; the equals sign is used typographically for this. Alexander Butlerov, a Russian chemist, was the first to use double bonds in chemical notation.

Double Bond Equivalent

The DBE number can be calculated from the formula using the following equation:
DBE = UN = PBoR = C – (H/2) + (N/2) +1,
C = number of carbon atoms
H = number of hydrogen and halogen atoms
N = number of nitrogen atoms.
One DBE = one ring or one double bond.

What is Triple Bond?

When two atoms share three electron pairs between each other, they are said to be bonded by triple covalent bond. Triple bond is denoted by three dash joining the atoms. The atoms with triple valency are pnictogen or the nitrogen family.

E.g.: N2 ,  C2Hetc.

One sigma bond and two pi bonds make up a triple bond in an alkyne. The two carbon atoms of the triple bond and the two atoms direct each other due to the shape of the sp hybrid orbitals.

Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs

Which type of bond is single double or triple?

Covalent bonds involve two atoms, typically nonmetals, that share electron density to form strong bonding interactions. Covalent bonds include single, double, and triple bonds and are composed of sigma and pi bonding interactions where 2, 4, or 6 electrons are shared respectively.

What is a single bond called?

A single bond is a sigma bond. An exception is the bond in diboron, which is a pi bond. In contrast, the double bond consists of one sigma bond and one pi bond, and a triple bond consists of one sigma bond and two pi bonds.

What is meant by a triple bond?

Triple bond, in chemistry, a covalent linkage in which two atoms share three pairs of electrons, as in the nitrogen molecule.

What causes a double bond?

A double bond occurs when two atoms share two sets of electrons. Electrons are always shared in pairs. Each shared pair of electrons is called a covalent bond. Since four electrons are shared between two atoms in a double bond, more energy is required to break the bonded atoms apart compared to a single bond.

Are single bonds stronger than triple bonds?

Triple bonds are stronger than the equivalent single bonds or double bonds, with a bond order of three. The most common triple bond, that between two carbon atoms, can be found in alkynes.

Chemical bonding has been one of the most fascinating themes in the field of science for the scientists and scholars. Learn more about chemical bonding with the expert faculty at BYJU’S – The Learning App.

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  1. Nice view about bonds
    Thank you

  2. Very satisfactory. ..doubts cleared

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