Single bond, Double bond and Triple bond
The two atoms can combine together in different ways. One of the ways of forming bonds is sharing of electron so as to attain their nearest noble gas configuration. This way of bonding is known as covalent bonding and this is shown mainly by non-metals and H+. Metals need more than 4 electrons for sharing in order to attain stable configuration which is not possible due to high energy involvement.
Formation process of covalent bond between two atoms is as follows:
- The two atoms combine together to become stable.
- The atoms become stable by losing energy.
- When the outermost shell of an atom is completely filled, then it is in lowest energy state (which is due to maximum no. of exchange of energy between the electrons present in the degenerate orbitals).
- Hence to attain stability, atoms achieve their nearest noble gas configuration.
- Now to attain their nearest noble gas configuration, they share required no. of electrons from single or multiple atoms. This leads to the formation of single bond, double bond or triple bond.
The formations of these bonds are discussed below:
When two atoms share one electron pair between each other, then they are said to be bonded by single covalent bond, denoted by single dash joining the atoms. For the formation of this bond, presence of an atom with single valency is required. The atoms with single valencies are halogens and hydrogen.
e.g. – Cl2, HCl, NH3 etc.
When two atoms share two electron pair between each other, they are said to be bonded by double covalent bond, denoted by double dash joining the atoms. The atoms with double valency are chalcogens or the oxygen family.
E.g.:- O2, CO2 etc.
When two atoms share three electron pair between each other, they are said to be bonded by triple covalent bond. Triple bond is denoted by three dash joining the atoms. The atoms with triple valency are pnictogen or the nitrogen family.
E.g.: N2 , C2H2 etc.
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