What is the full form of DNA?
The DNA full form is Deoxyribonucleic Acid. DNA is a set of molecules responsible for the transmitting and carrying the inherited materials or genetic instructions from parents to children. DNA is an organic compound that has a unique molecular structure. It is found in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The Swiss biologist Johannes Friedrich Miescher first recognized and named DNA in 1869, during his work on white blood cells. The double helix structure of a molecule of DNA was later discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick using experimental evidence. Finally, it has been shown that DNA is responsible for processing a human being’s genetic information.
One could think of the DNA structure as a twisted ladder. This structure is defined as a double helix, as seen in the above figure. DNA’s basic building blocks are nucleotides, containing a carbon-sugar group, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. The groups of sugar and phosphate bind the nucleotides together to form every DNA strand. The four forms of nitrogen bases are Adenine (A), Thymine (T ), Guanine (G), and Cytosine ( C).
Type of Deoxyribonucleic Acid(DNA)
Different types of DNA are
- A – DNA
It is a right-handed DNA and dehydrated DNA takes the form of an A form that protects DNA under active conditions such as protein binding, desiccation also removes the DNA solvent.
- B – DNA
B – DNA is the most common DNA conformation, which is a right-handed helix. A majority of DNA has a type B conformation under normal physiological conditions.
- Z – DNA
Z-DNA is a left-handed DNA, where the double helix in a zig-zag pattern winds to the left and Alexander Rich and Andres Wang discovered it. Z – DNA is located ahead of a gene ‘s starting site and is therefore assumed to play a role in controlling the gene.
Functions of DNA
- DNA is the genetic material that holds all the inherited information coded in its nitrogen bases structure.
- DNA passes the genetic information from one cell to its daughters and from one generation to the next.
- Every person has their sequence of DNA that doesn’t fit with others. This DNA property is used in DNA fingerprinting, a method used to identify a person from their DNA.
- DNA influences metabolic reactions of the cells with the aid of hormones, enzymes and specific RNAs.