What is the full form of LASER?
The full form of LASER is Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. LASER is a type of electromagnetic machine that can emit light that is an Electromagnetic Radiation. Such lights are both coherent and very weak. They are produced by a method named as optical amplification.
History of LASER
Albert Einstein was the first person to speak about the LASER process. The system was however completely developed in 1960 by Theodore H. Maiman. The LASER was based primarily on the concept given by Charles Hard Townes and Arthur Leonard Schawlow.
LASER working principle
A simple laser consists of a chamber identified as the cavity that is built to reflect waves of visible, infrared or ultraviolet to reinforce one another. The cavity may either include liquids, solids or gases. The material selection in the cavity decides the output wavelength. Mirrors are located at either end of the cavity. One of the mirrors is fully reflective so that none of the light will pass into them. The other mirror is reflective in part, allowing 5 per cent of the light to pass through it. Energy is pumped into the cavity from an external source through a method known as pumping.
The waves in between the mirrors are reflected back and forth. The length of the cavity is such that waves that are reflected reinforce each other. At the end of the cavity, with a partially reflective mirror, the electromagnetic waves emerge in harmony with one another. The laser output is a coherent, electric field. Both waves have the same phase and frequency in a coherent beam of electromagnetic energy.
Below is a list of LASER types, depending on their wavelengths and applications.
- Gas LASER
- Semiconductor LASER
- Chemical LASER
- Liquid or Dye LASER
- Excimer LASER
Properties of LASER
We may classify the laser beam characteristics into four main groups, such as
- Superior Coherence
- Superior Monochromatism
- High Output
- Superior Directivity
Using these laser properties, they are used in various fields, such as optical communication and protection.
Applications of LASER
- LASERs are used in DVD, CD and Barcode Scanners.
- Lasers are used in different types of devices, i.e. drilling, cutting, surface treatment, welding and soldering equipment.
- Lasers are used in medical devices such as dental treatment devices, cosmetic treatment equipment.
- The lasers are used in laser printing devices.
- LASER is used in military equipment (anti-missile devices) and an integral component of Nuclear Fusion Reactors.
Advantages of LASER
- It is used for information transmission in the field of communication because it has an enormous capacity to support information.
- This principle of no interference of electromagnetic is used in wireless communication systems via free space for both telecommunication and computer networking since the laser radiation is free of this interference.
- Laser radiation includes very little leakage of the signals.
- In fibre optic systems laser-based fibre optic wires are used because they are very lightweight.
- Lasers are commonly used for the diagnosis of cancers in the medical sector because they are less harmful compared with X-rays. They are used to burn small tumours on the surface of the eye, and the surface of the tissue.
Disadvantages of LASER
- Lasers are expensive, and therefore, those patients who need laser-based treatment options are much expenditure.
- Lasers are expensive to maintain, and therefore cause high costs to doctors and hospital administrators.
- Lasers elevate the convolution and the treatment period based on laser equipment.