SONAR Full Form

What is the full form of SONAR?

The full form of SONAR is Sound Navigation and Ranging. It is a technique involving the use of propagation of sound for navigation, and it also can be used for distant object detection and interaction with other objects. SONAR has a wide range of application areas undersea such as submarine interaction and submarine route planning.

The first man to use the SONAR concept was Leonardo da Vinci who, in 1490, placed a tube into the water to hear the noise of other vessels.

Working principle of SONAR

A sound wave is generated and transmitted by the transducer. The sensor detects the reflected sound waves from an object and records it, which is further analysed to get the desired information.

Types of SONAR

The two types of technology falling under the name ‘SONAR’ are

  • Active SONAR
  • Passive SONAR

Active Sonar

  • It involves sound wave emission and waiting for the echo to return.
  • It has a receiver and transmitter.
  • The transmitter produces the high-frequency sound waves in the specified direction, and the receiver receives the reproduced high-frequency sound waves from the target back.
  • Some animals use the echolocation method (Active sonar) to locate predators and targets. Examples Whales, dolphins etc.

Passive Sonar

  • It is involved in listening to the sound produced by underwater objects.
  • It only has a receiver.
  • It identifies the noise coming from objects underwater. It detects the sound coming from the receiver but does not transmit the sound.
  • It’s useful for underwater research missions.

Benefits of SONAR

  • SONAR is indeed the best tool we have for detecting underwater objects. SONAR is beneficial for finding the water depth and for navigation.
  • It is a precise method.


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  1. It is so good sir,thank you sir