ICSE Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2015 contains the answers to all questions along with the marking scheme. Going through the Solution pdf, students will analyse the way answers are written in the exam to gain high marks. Also, they were able to find out the change in the exam pattern from 2015 to the present. Knowing it, students can prepare a better study plan and strategy for the exam.
The ICSE Class 10 Geography 2015 exam was of 80 marks and students were allotted 2 hours of time duration to finish the paper. Click on the link below to download the ICSE Class 10 Geography Question Paper Solution 2015 PDF.
Students can have a look at the ICSE Class 10 Geography Question Paper Solution 2015 below:
Topics Found Confusing and Difficult in Geography 2015 Question Paper
We have also listed the topics and concepts which students found difficult while attempting the 2015 Geography paper.
1) On Survey Map:
- Slope of the land
- Reasons for scanty rainfall
- Calculating difference in height
- Identification of dry tank with embankment
- Area calculation.
2) On Map of India:
- Position of Nilgiri
- Malabar waste
- Andaman Sea
- Direction of temperate cyclone
- Malwa plateau
3) Explanation of reasoning questions.
4) Difference between rain that occurs from June to September and that from December to February in North India.
5) Reason for Kerala having the longest rainy season.
6) Annual rainfall totalling.
7) Difference between rill and gully erosion.
8) Fossil fuel – not clear of its meaning.
9) Coal as a versatile mineral.
10) By-products of the sugar industry.
11) Economic benefit of Golden Quadrilateral.
12) Sources of gaseous waste.
13) Climatic requirement for cotton and jute.
14) Mineral based industry was not attempted by many.
15) Pedogenesis – its meaning.
16) Scented tree found in high altitude.
17) Modern method of irrigation.
18) Largest oil refinery in the public sector.
19) Waste segregation and reduction.
20) Expressway and highway – is difference.
ICSE Class 10 Geography (H.G.C – Paper 2) Question Paper 2015 With Solution
Question 1: Study the extract of the Survey of India Map sheet No. 45D/10 and answer the following questions:
(a) Give the four figure grid reference for a figure similar to the one given below. Identify the figure:
(b) How is the drainage pattern in grid square 1606 different from that in grid square 1608.
(c) Identify the correct six figure grid reference for each of the following:
(i) Gautam Maharishi Mandir
200071; 071200; 201070?
172059; 052179; 179052?
(d) Name the most prominent settlement other than ABU. Give two reasons to support your answer.
(e) (i) What is the general slope of the land in the north-west corner of the map extract?
(ii) What is the compass direction of Chandela (1803) from Hanumanji ka Mandir (2208)?
(f) What do you understand by the following terms as used on the map extract?
(i) Causeway (1702)
(ii) Falls 25m (2307).
(g) (i) If you were to cycle at 10 km an hour, how much time would it take to cover the north-south distance depicted on this map extract?
(ii) Calculate the area enclosed by Eastings 19 to 22 and Northings 04 to 09.
(h) (i) Identify one natural feature in grid square 1610
(ii) Identify one man made feature in grid square 1903.
(i) Give two probable reasons, other than dry water features, to indicate that the region depicted on the map extract receives seasonal rainfall.
(j) Calculate, in metres, the difference in height between the highest point on the map extract and the contour height given in grid square 2402.
(a) 1511/1811/1711/1903 (Any one)
Dry tank with an embankment
(b) 1606 – Radial
1608 – Trellis
(c) (i) Gautam Maharishi Mandir
(ii) .443 – 179052
(d) Vajna ( 1503)
Two reasons: Presence of a police chowki , Metalled road
(e) (i) Towards the west / South West
(ii) South West
(f) (i) Causeway is a raised metalled road over a non-perennial stream or Marshy area or which serves as a temporary bridge.
(ii) Falls 25 indicates a waterfall of height 25metres.
(g) (i) 1 hour
(ii) 15 square kms
(h) (i) 1610 – broken ground / seasonal stream / dry stream
(ii) 1903 – Permanent settlement / embankment
(i) Presence of broken ground / causeways / road motorable in dry season.
(j) Highest point 1409 metres – contour heights to 80 metres = 1129 metres
Question 2: On the outline map of India provided:
(a) Mark and name the Nilgiris.
(b) Shade and label the Malwa Plateau.
(c) Shade and label the Malabar Coastal Plains.
(d) Mark and name the river Gomti.
(e) Shade and name the Andaman Sea.
(f) Mark and name Allahabad.
(g) Mark with a single arrow and name the winds that bring winter rain to north-west India.
(h) Mark and name Digboi.
(i) Mark an area with laterite soil below the Tropic of Cancer.
(j) Mark and name the Karakoram Pass.
(a) Explain two factors that affect the climate of India giving a suitable example for each.
(b) State two differences between the rainfalls that occur from June to September and that from December to February in North India.
(c) Give a geographic reason for each of the following:
(i) Kerala has the longest rainy season.
(ii) The Konkan coast experiences orographic rainfall.
(iii) The city of Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh has a higher range of temperature
than that of Chennai in Tamil Nadu.
(d) Study the climatic data given below and answer the questions that follow:
(i) Identify the hottest month.
(ii) Calculate the annual rainfall.
(iii) Name the winds that bring the maximum rainfall to this city.
(a) Latitude – the further one moves away from the equator, the colder it gets as the rays of the sun get more oblique. Hence places in the south like Kochi, Chennai, Bangalore and others are warmer than places in the north like Delhi, Agra, Srinagar and others due to proximity to the equator.
Altitude-the higher one goes above sea-level, the colder it gets as the atmosphere is heated from below. Hence places at a higher altitude like Simla, Mussourie, Panchgani and others are cooler than places at sea level like Mumbai,Bhopal,Jaipur and others.
Distance from the sea – the further one moves away from the sea, the higher will be the range of temperature. Hence places like Mumbai, Chennai,Kolkata and others will have an equable climate as they experience the moderating influence of the sea, while places further inland like Pune, Indore, Hyderabad, Amritsar, Delhi and others will have a continental type /extreme type of climate. ( Any relevant examples)
Varied Relief – When mountains lie perpendicular to onshore winds, heavy rainfall occurs on the windward side and scanty rainfall occurs on the leeward side; and when mountains lie parallel to rain-bearing winds, little rain falls. E.g Aravallis – Thar / Rajasthan./ So places that lie on the windward side of mountains like Mumbai, Cherrapunji and others will receive more rain than places that lie on the leeward side of mountains like Pune, Shillong and others. Alignment of mountain ranges/ Presence of Himalayas- Checking the South West Monsoons from blowing into Central Asia / Checking Cold winds from Central Asia. Impact of prevailing winds / Upper air circulation / Jet Stream. (Any 2 points)
Rainfall in June-Sep
Rainfall in Dec – Feb
(c) (i) Kerala lies to the SW and hence is the first state to receive rain from the SW Monsoon, Arabian Sea branch as these winds move from SW to NE. These withdraw from North to the South and hence Kerala is the last state from which these winds withdraw. Kerela is the first state to receive the South West Monsoon and the last to see it withdraw .
(ii) The Konkan coast lies on the windward side of the western ghats and hence receives heavy rain from the SW Monsoon winds, Arabian Sea branch. The windward side of an area is the slope of a range that gets the full blast of an onshore wind and hence get plenty of rainfall.
(iii) Kanpur lies to the interior, away from the influence of the sea; whereas Chennai lies along the coast and is influenced by the sea. As Kanpur is located in the Interior it is deprived of the moderating influence of land and sea breeze.
(d) (i) May
(ii) 131.9 cm
(iii) Retreating Monsoon.
(a) State the characteristic of each of the soils named below that makes them most suitable for crop cultivation:
(i) Black soil.
(ii) Red soil.
(b) State the geographic term for each of the following processes:
(i) The process by which soluble minerals dissolve in rain water and percolate to the bottom, leaving the top soil infertile.
(ii) The process by which rain water, flowing in definite paths, removes the top soil, thus causing deep cuts to the surface of the land.
(c) Define the following:
(d) Give a geographic reason for each of the following:
(i) Alluvial soil is extremely fertile.
(ii) Need for Soil conservation.
(iii) Reafforestation should be practised extensively.
(a) (i) Black soil- moisture-retentive/self-ploughing/rich in lime, iron, cacium, alumina, potash/ deep and fine grained / clayey … (Any one point)
(ii) Red soil- rich in iron/porous/friable/does not get water-logged/responds to manures or fertilizers /rich in potash … (Any one point)
(b) (i) leaching
(ii) Gully erosion
(c) (i) Pedogenesis- the process of soil formation.
(ii) Humus- the decayed organic matter that helps make soil fertile.
(iii) Bhangar- the older,less fertile alluvial soil.
(d) (i) as it contains minerals like iron, potash, lime../is loamy/has sufficient depth/is renewed annually/ It is a transported soil which brings along lots of minerals … (Any one point)
(ii) As soil supports all plant life/to increase our agricultural output/ Various methods/ Efforts made by man to check soil erosion and retain the fertility of the soil… (Any one point)
(iii) As it helps prevent soil erosion/holds the soil together/helps maintain the ecological balance/checks global warming/reduces severity of drought… (Any one point)
(a) State two characteristics of Tropical Deciduous forests.
(b) State two reasons why Tropical Evergreen forests are difficult to exploit.
(c) Identify the tree as per its characteristics mentioned below:
(i) It yields wood that is hard and scented and is usually found in high altitudes.
(ii) It is generally found in deltaic regions and is used to make boats.
(iii) The furniture made from the wood of this tree is generally the most expensive.
(d) Differentiate between afforestation and deforestation. State a disadvantage of deforestation.
(a) Any two of the following:
- Tropical deciduous forests have trees found in pure stands.
- Trees shed their leaves in a particular season Provide valuable timber and other forest products.
(b) Tropical evergreen forests are dense/ Heavy logs make it difficult for accessibility/ Trees are found in mixed stands/ Dense undergrowth… (Any two points)
(c) (i) deodar
Planting of trees over a large area
Cutting of trees over a large area
Disadv. Leads to soil erosion/extinction of flora and fauna/rise in temperatures/floods/increases severity of drought helps maintain the ecological balance/checks global warming/reduces severity of drought… (Any one point)
(a) State two reasons why irrigation is important to a country like India.
(b) Name two modern methods of irrigation. State one important reason for their growing popularity.
(c) (i) Why is well irrigation still a popular means of irrigation? Give two reasons to support your answer.
(ii) State the significance of rainwater harvesting.
(d) (i) Why is the world in danger of facing a severe water shortage in the coming future? Give two reasons to support your answer.
(ii) State one measure the Government should adopt to handle the present water crisis.
(a) Irrigation is required as rainfall is erratic and unevenly distributed, Irrigation is required to grow crops throughout the year as rainfall is seasonal, Irrigation is required as some crops like rice and jute require more water than supplied by rain, Irrigation is required to increase agricultural output by providing the right amount of water at the right time. Multiplicity of crops / Commercialised crops/ Nature of Soil / Monsoon is seasonal. (Any two points)
(b) Modern methods of irrigation- Drip irrigation, Spray irrigation, Sprinkler irrigation. (Any two types)
Reason – they prevent wastage of water/provides the right quantity of water at the right time / No waterlogging/ No soil erosion (Any one reason)
(c) (i) well irrigation is still popular as it is cheap/easy to construct/occupies a small area/control of water is in the hands of the farmer / Can be dug at any convenient place/ Independent source of Irrigation. (Any two points)
(ii) Rainwater harvesting helps to meet the increasing demand for water/ helps to check surface run-off that chokes the drain / recharge groundwater resource/ reduce soil erosion / raise underground water table. (Any one point)
(d) (i) Severe water shortage is due to wastage/ pollution/ overuse/ mismanagement /Increasing population / increasing Industries. (Any two points)
(ii) make rainwater harvesting mandatory in every housing colony/levy fine on wastage/pass laws to ensure water is recycled in factories. (Any one point)
(a) State two reasons why limestone is a valuable mineral.
(b) State the most important use of the following:
(i) Iron ore
(c) Name the:
(i) Largest oil refinery in the Public sector.
(ii) State that is the largest producer of coal
(iii) Best variety of iron ore.
(d) Give a geographic reason for each of the following:
(i) Many port cities have their own oil refineries.
(ii) Petroleum is called a ‘fossil fuel’.
(iii) Coal is called a versatile mineral
(a) Limestone is needed in the manufacture of iron and steel, cement, fertilizers / Fluxing material in smelting of iron ore / glass manufacturing / manufacture of Chemicals – soda ash, caustic soda, bleaching powder / Use in paper / sugar and aluminium. (Any two points)
(b) (i) Iron ore – are used in Steel making / Slag for cement / sludge for fertilizer. (Any one use)
(ii) Bauxite- to extract aluminum/ light / used in aircraft/ use in automobiles
(c) (i) Mathura / Guwahati / Digboi / Haldia / Koyali / Barauni / Kochin Chennai / Panipat / Mumbai / Vishalapatnam
(d) (i) As port cities are large consumers of oil and its products and by-products/to cut down transport costs as most of the crude oil is imported. (Any one point)
(ii) As petroleum is derived from the decomposition of organic matter under tremendous heat and pressure.
(iii) As it has numerous uses-it can be converted into oil, gas and electricity/ used to generate power/ used as fuel/used as a raw material in numerous industries like iron and steel, fertilizers and cement/ yields valuable by-products like naphtha and phenol.
(Any one point)
(a) Differentiate between a Rabi crop and a Kharif crop.
(b) State an important difference between the climatic requirements for growing cotton and jute.
(c) Give the geographic term for each of the following:
(i) Cultivation of sugarcane from the root stock of the cane which has been cut.
(ii)The residue left behind after the crushing of oilseeds.
(iii)The process by which latex is converted into a thick, spongy mass by adding acetic acid or formic acid
(d) Give a geographic reason for each of the following:
(i) Tea is cultivated on hill slopes.
(ii) The yield per hectare of sugarcane is higher in the Southern states.
(iii) Pulses are important food crops.
Sown in Oct-Nov and harvested in Mar-April
Sown in June and harvested in Oct-Nov
Temp: 20⁰C- 32⁰C
Temp: 21⁰C- 35⁰C
Rain : 50cm- 120cm
Rain : 150cm- 250cm
(c) (i) Ratooning
(ii) Oil cake
(d) (i) to allow excess water to drain off as tea cannot tolerate stagnant water
(ii) as the mills are closer to the fields hence there is less loss of sucrose content/ use of better quality cane/larger farms, hence mechanized farming is possible/co-operative farming is practiced, ensuring a better yield with better seeds, increased use of better fertilizers, better irrigation method and better crop protection measures / Frost free growing season / tapering shape of peninsular- Sea breeze / Longer crushing season / regur soil responsible for better yield. (Any one point)
(iii) As they are in proteins hence important in vegetarian diet.
(a)(i) Why is the cotton textile industry called an agro-based industry?
(ii) Give an important reason for it being more widespread than the jute industry.
(b)(i) State one important point of similarity between the woollen industry and the silk industry.
(ii) Name the state that produces the most woollen and silk products respectively.
(c)(i) State two major problems faced by the sugar industry.
(ii) Name two by-products of the sugar industry.
(d)(i) State one of the main problems of the silk industry.
(ii) Name two products of the jute industry, other than rope and gunny bags.
(iii) Why are synthetic fibres popular?
(a) (i) As it requires cotton, an agricultural product as its raw material.
(ii) It is more widespread than the jute textile industry because cotton is grown all over the country/ whereas jute is cultivated mainly in the east of India/ there continues to be a great demand for cotton all over the country/hence mills are set up everywhere; whereas the demand for jute is declining as it is facing stiff competition from synthetic material like nylon and plastic/ India being a tropical country more demand for cotton fabrics/ affordable by mass. (Any one point)
(b) (i) One important point of similarity between the woolen and silk industry is that both use animal products as raw materials/ both are small-scale/cottage industries. (Any one point)
(ii) Woollen industry- Punjab ; Silk Industry- Karnataka
(c) (i) Problems of the sugar industry: poor quality of cane/out-dated machinery/fluctuating supply of raw material/low profit margins as prices are fixed by the govt./inadequate use of by-products, increasing production costs/mills are located far from fields, leading to loss of sucrose/ the seasonal nature of the industry, increasing production costs/small size of farms/inadequate use of fertilizers. (Any two problems)
(ii) By- products- bagasse, molasses, pressmud. (Any two points)
(d) (i) Introduction of artificial silk which is more durable / Easy to maintain / crease proof / cheaper to produce /Need for modern power looms for increase in production/ No systematic testing and grading of silk/ changes in price of raw silk affect both growers and the industry. (Any one point)
(ii) Two products of the jute industry- carpets/ wall- hangings/pot holders fabrics/sandals/hand-bags. (Any two points)
(iii) As they are cheaper/are more durable /are moth resistant/ not dependent on agriculture for raw materials / Chemicals are easily available. (Any one point)
(a) (i) Why is the iron and steel industry called a basic industry?
(ii) Define a mini steel plant.
(b) With which large scale industry would you identify the following manufacturing centres?
(c) (i) State two reasons for the growing importance in the status of petrochemical industries.
(ii) Name two products of the petroleum industry.
(d) (i) State two conditions necessary for the setting up of a heavy engineering industry.
(ii) Name a ship building yard on the east coast and a centre for making electric locomotives.
(a) (i) It is called a basic industry because it supplies raw materials to all other industries. / Key product for making of all industries/ used for automobiles/ railways / shipbuilding / heavy machineries / tools / bridges/ roads/ domestic purpose etc
(ii) A mini steel plant is one which manufactures steel using scrap iron in electric arc furnaces.
(b) (i) Kanpur- aircraft/sugar/jute/electronic goods/automobiles(scooters) Leather industries.
(Any one point)
(ii) Rourkela- iron and steel/fertilizers. (Any one point)
(iii) Pune- automobiles/ electronics/ cotton textile. (Any one point)
(iv) Mangalore- oil refining
(c) (i) This is because petrochemicals are cheaper/ durable, are not dependent on agricultural raw materials/ hence no fluctuation in production/ cost effective / raw materials easily available. (Any two points)
(ii) Two products are- Plastic, synthetic rubber, PVC pipes, synthetic fibre, detergents.
(Any two points)
(d) (i) Heavy engineering industries require large amounts of power, labour intensive , High capital/bulky raw materials/ High transport cost. (Any two points)
(ii) Ship building yard on the east coast- Vishakhapatnam or Kolkata; electric locomotive- Chittaranjan.
(a) (i)Why is the Railways an important means of transport as compared to Airways?
(ii) State one economic benefit of the Golden Quadrilateral Project.
(b) (i) State one important difference between an expressway and a highway.
(ii) Name the first expressway constructed in the country.
(iii) State a reason why the Northern Rivers are more suitable for navigation than the Deccan Rivers.
(c) (i)’Waste segregation is important”. Give a reason to support your answer.
(ii) Why is nuclear waste harmful?
(iii) Explain briefly how as a student, you can help in the reduction of waste generation.
(d) (i) What is understood by biodegradable waste?
(ii) State one source of gaseous waste
(a) (i) Railways can carry more tonnage and passengers than airways/facilitates easier movement of bulky goods/helped to transfer new ideas/innovations to rural areas/they provide a more comfortable journey especially for elders and infants/ Inexpensive/ contributes to the economic growth and urbanisation, (Any one point)
(ii) Advantage of the GQ project-Connects major cities and ports/provides an impetus to truck transport/enables the industrial growth of the small towns through which it passes/provides opportunities for the transport of agricultural produce from the hinterland to major cities and ports. (Any one point)
(b) (i) There are no traffic lights on expressways, unlike on highways/ two- wheelers and three-wheelers are not permitted on expressways / there are no speed-breakers on expressways. (Any one point)
(ii) 1st Expressway-Ahmedabad-Vadodara Expressway
(iii) North rivers flow over flat terrain, whereas Deccan rivers flow over uneven land, hence presence of cataracts and rapids which hinder navigation/northern rivers are perennial, whereas Deccan rivers are seasonal. (Any one point)
(c) (i) Waste should be segregated to make for easier waste management/ to help identify the best method of waste disposal.
(ii) Nuclear waste is hazardous as it can remain radio-active for thousands of years/ if it is not disposed off properly it continues to be hazardous/it can enter the human body food and water/ the damage it causes is irreparable/ it affects future generations. (Any one point)
(iii) Learn to reduce consumption of goods/learn to recycle and reuse. (Any one point)
(d) (i) Biodegradable waste is waste that can be easily broken down by natural processes of decomposition.
(ii) Exhaust from vehicles/burning of fossil fuels in factories and thermal power plants/burning of wheat or rice straw/methane from cattle sheds.
The ICSE Class 10 Geography Question Paper Solution 2015 must have helped students with their exam preparation. The answers in the Solution pdf have provided an in-depth to 2015 questions and the way answers to be written to score high marks in the board exam. Apart from the 2015 paper solution, students can find the answers to other papers of ICSE Class 10 Previous Years Questions by clicking here. Happy Learning and stay tuned to BYJU’S for the latest update on ICSE/CBSE/State Boards/Competitive exams. Also, don’t forget to download the BYJU’S App.