ICSE Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2019 With Solution

ICSE Class 10 Geography Question Paper Solution 2019 contains the answers of all the questions provided in the paper. These answers will help students in understanding the answer writing skill and provide them a better idea of how marks are given on each step. Students must solve the 2019 Geography question paper and should refer to the solution pdf after completing the paper.

The ICSE Class 10 Geography 2019 exam was conducted on 11th March 2019. The exam started at 11am and students were allotted 2 hours of time duration to finish the paper. Students can download the ICSE Class 10 Geography Question Paper Solution 2019 PDF from the link below.

Download ICSE Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2019

Download ICSE Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2019 Solution PDF

Students can have a look at the ICSE Class 10 Geography Question Paper Solution 2019 below:


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ICSE Class 10 Geography (H.G.C – Paper 2) Question Paper 2019 With Solution

Question 1:

(a) (i) Give the six-figure grid reference for the temple that is located to the south

west of Pithapura settlement.

Answer: 201215/202215

(ii) Give the four-figure grid reference for a settlement where people of the region

meet socially and for trade at least once in a year.

Answer: 1622 / 1520/1519/1620

(b) (i) What is the pattern of drainage seen in the grid square 2118?

Answer: 2118 – Radial pattern.

(ii) What is the pattern of settlement seen in the grid square 1923?

1923 – Nucleated / Compact / Clustered.

(c) What do each of the two numbers (281 printed in black colour and 20 printed in red colour) in the grid square 1818 indicate?

Answer: 281 – Spot height/altitude of 281 m above mean sea level

20 – Distance stone along the metalled road/milestone

(d) (i) Name any two man-made features in grid square 2419.

Answer: Man-made features – Cart track / lined perennial well / permanent hut / unlined perennial well / cultivated land/ footpath.

(ii) Name any two natural features in grid square 2118.

Natural features – Hill / seasonal stream / rocky slope / forest area/ valley/ spur

(e) What is the significance of the following?

(i) Fire line in grid square 2417.

Answer: Fire line is made to protect the forest from spread of forest fire.

(ii) Water body found in grid square 2221.

It is a reservoir where river water is stored by constructing a dam / embankment. This

water is used for irrigation through canal/ for providing water for nearby areas.

(f) Calculate the area of the region between 16 and 19 Eastings and 18 and 22

Northings. Give your answer in kilometre square.

Answer: 12 km square

(g) Give a reason for each of the following:

(i) The water in some of the wells in the north west quarter of the map is not fit

for drinking.

Answer: The water in some of the wells is brackish/salty/saline

(ii) The region near Anadra and Gulabganj has many causeways.

There are many streams/ seasonal streams in the region and causeways have to be built

when metalled roads are constructed to enable it to cross the stream.

(h) (i) What is the main means of irrigation used by people living in the area shown

on the map?

Answer: lined perennial well/lined well

(ii) What is the main occupation of the people of the region shown on the map?


(i) Which according to you is the most important settlement?

Give a reason to support your answer.

Answer: It has a metalled road passing near it / Dispensary / Dak-Bungalow / Post and

Telegraph office / Police Chowki.

(j) Name any two means of transport used by the people living in the area shown on

the map extract.

Answer: Metalled road / Cart track / Pack track / Foot path.

Question 2: On the outline map of India provided:

(a) Shade and label the Gangetic Plain.

(b) Shade and label an area of laterite soil in North India.

(c) Mark and label the Karakoram Mountains.

(d) Mark and name the Palk Strait.

(e) Shade and label the river Cauveri.

(f) Mark and name Mumbai.

(g) Mark and name the Nathu La Pass.

(h) Mark and name Digboi.

(i) Shade and name the Deccan Plateau.

(j) Shade and label the river Jhelum.


ICSE Class 10 Geography Qs Paper 2019 Solution-1

Question 3:

(a) (i) What type of wind is ‘Monsoon’? What is its direction during summer?

Answer: It is a periodic wind. Its direction during summer is southwest.

(ii) Mention two characteristics of the Indian monsoon.

Erratic in nature / Unevenly distributed / mostly orographic type / occurs mainly in

four months.

(b) With reference to the summer season in India, answer the following questions:

(i) Mention the duration of the summer season in India.

Answer: March, April, May / March to May

(ii) What is the atmospheric pressure condition during summer season over the

central part of India?

In central part of India there is low pressure.

(c) Give a reason for each of the following:

(i) Goa receives heavier rainfall than Puducherry.

Answer: Goa is located on the windward side of western ghats so Arabian Sea Branch of south west monsoon brings heavier rainfall and Puducherry is located on the eastern coast and receives lighter rainfall from North East Monsoon.

(ii) Mawsynram receives the highest average annual rainfall.

Mawsynram experiences Orographic rainfall as it is located on windward side of Garo hill. Bay of Bengal branch of South West Monsoon brings heavy rain to this area/ funnel shape of Garo, Khasi, Jaintia hill lead to trapping of clouds leading to more rains.

(iii) Mangaluru is cooler than Delhi in summer season.

Mangalore has a coastal location, but Delhi lies in the interior. Due to distance from the sea, Mangalore is cooler than Delhi in summer.

(d) Study the data of distribution of temperature and rain for station X and answer the questions that follow:














Temp. (°C)













Rainfall (cm)














(i) Is Station X in the coastal area or in the interior of the country?

It is in the interior.

(ii) Calculate the total annual rainfall for Station X.

321 cm.

(iii) Name the wind that brings most of the rainfall to Station X.

South West Monsoon

Question 4:

(a) (i) Name the Indian soil which is formed due to the weathering of basic igneous rocks.

(ii) Name two states of India where this type of soil is found.


(i) Black soil/ Regur/Black cotton soil

(ii) Maharashtra / Gujarat / Madhya Pradesh / Andhra Pradesh / Karnataka / parts of

Tamil Nadu

(b) Name the following:

(i) An important transported soil of India.

(ii) Soil that is rich in iron oxide.


(i) Alluvial soil

(ii) Red soil / Laterite soil

(c) Give a geographical reason for each of the following:

(i) Terrace farming is an ideal soil conservation method for hilly regions.

(ii) Dry farming is preferred in areas with red soil.

(iii) Wind is a common agent of soil erosion in arid regions.


(i) Terraces check the speed of running water and thus reduce the chance for erosion.

(ii) Red soil is ideal for dry farming because it is porous and does not retain moisture.

(iii) Soil erosion by wind is common in arid regions because arid areas do not support vegetation and since there are no roots to hold the soil together, the wind can carry away the loose soil easily/wind speed is high due to absence of obstruction.

(d) Briefly answer the following:

(i) Mention one way in which man is responsible for soil erosion.

(ii) How can deepening of the river bed help in preventing soil erosion?

(iii) Mention a physical characteristic of Laterite soil.


(i) Man is responsible for soil erosion because of large scale deforestation done for agriculture / industrialisation / urbanisation / he allows his livestock to overgraze land / faulty farming practices/ mining/construction/ quarrying, excessive usage of chemical fertiliser, pesticide or insecticide/ shifting agriculture. (Any one)

(ii) Deepening the river bed increases the capacity of the river to hold water which then

will not overflow to cause soil erosion.

(iii) It is red in colour / dry / porous / hardens when dry / coarse/ does not retain moisture/

soft and friable/ colour varies from red to brown to yellow.

Question 5:

(a) Give two reasons to explain as to why we need to conserve our forest Resource.

Answer: Forests must be conserved because they have a favourable effect on the climate or temperature and rain / help in soil conservation / flood control measure / maintains the ecological balance / habitat of wild life / provide forest products / places of tourist interest / become a source of humus/ check extension of sand dune/prevent global warming/recharge ground water.

(b) (i) Mention two conditions required for the growth of Littoral Forest.

(ii) State one characteristic feature of the forest found in the Nilgiri Hills.


(i) Temperature 26°C to 29°C / Rainfall – more than 200 cm / coastal climate/ areas of tidal influence/ salty water area.

(ii) Vegetation consists of mixed deciduous and coniferous forests.

The vegetation varies according to altitude. Consists of tropical montane forest- has deciduous, evergreen and alpine vegetation

(c) (i) Give two reasons to explain as to why the Tropical Evergreen Forests are difficult to exploit for commercial purpose.

(ii) Name any two trees found in Tropical Evergreen forests.


(i) – Thick under growth / inaccessible

– Trees are not in pure stand/mixed stand.

– Heavy rainfall.

– Lack of transportation.

– Hard wood difficult to cut.

− Dark and dense/marshy area/ very tall trees/water logging. (Any two points)

(ii) Rosewood, Ironwood, Ebony, Cinchona, Mahogany, bamboo.

(d) Briefly explain each of the following:

(i) The trees in the Tropical Desert Forest have stunted growth.

(ii) There is a gradual increase in the forest cover in India in recent times.

(iii) The trees in Monsoon Deciduous forests, shed their leaves for about 6-8 weeks during March and April.


(i) This is due to non-availability of enough water for growth of trees.

(ii) This is due to check on deforestation / banning shifting agriculture / government initiative such as agroforestry, farm forestry, social forestry, Van Mahotsav, afforestation and re-afforestation.

(iii) Lack of sufficient moisture for leaves to withstand dry weather conditions/ to conserve moisture/ to reduce loss of water through transpiration, to have less surface area/subsoil water is not enough for trees to retain leaf cover/to survive heat and drought condition during autumn, spring and early summer.

Question 6:

(a) “The modern means of irrigation are gaining popularity.”

Give two reasons to justify this statement.


– No loss of water due to evaporation and leakage.

− Use water economically/No wastage of water/help to conserve water.

− Do not cause soil erosion.

− Suitable for areas of low rain, high efficiency.

(b) Mention two factors that favour the development of tube well irrigation in Punjab.


– Ground water level is high / high water table.

– Soft nature of rocks which makes digging tube wells easy / soft soil.

– Availability of cheap HEP / fertile agricultural area.

− Productive area to compensate cost of tube well construction

(c) Give a reason for each of the following:

(i) Most of the South Indian states are not suitable for development of canal irrigation.

(ii) There is an urgent need for water conservation in India.

(iii) Development of irrigation is essential for the growth of the agriculture sector of India.


(i) South Indian states have uneven terrain hence they are not suitable for constructing canals / rivers are seasonal / hard rocks make it difficult to construct canals. (Any one point)


– To meet the increasing demand of growing population.

– To provide water for irrigation and industrial use/ increase crop production.

– To reduce the water scarcity /pollution of water/ depleting ground water/wastage of water/rain is seasonal and unreliable. (Any one point)

(iii) Rainfall in India is seasonal/uncertain/unevenly distributed/annual crops need water all through the year/to maximize the agricultural production.

− To attain self sufficiency

− Certain crops need more water

− For success of green revolution

(d) Briefly explain the following terms:

(i) Inundation canal.

(ii) Rooftop rainwater harvesting.

(iii) Surface water.


(i) The canals that are taken out from the rivers without any regulating system like weirs, etc at their head / the canal that are filled with water only during floods

(ii) Rainwater can be collected over rooftop and collected water channelized through small PVC pipes into the underground pits, wells, etc.

(iii) Water found on the surface of the earth in the form of rivers, lakes, ponds, etc. is called surface water.

Question 7:

(a) Give two advantages of using bio-gas as a source of power.

Answer: Bio-gas is clean / non-polluting / cheap / the sludge left behind act as a rich fertilizer/ can be installed with less capital investment/cost effective/eco-friendly/easily available/ reduce dependence on fossil fuel/ renewable/ sustainable.

(b) Name the following:

(i) A metallic mineral for which the Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh is famous.

(ii) The multi-purpose project based on the River Sutlej.


(i) Manganese or Copper or Bauxite

(ii) The Bhakra Nangal Dam/ Bhakra Nangal project

(c) Give a reason for each of the following:

(i) Odisha has benefitted greatly from the Hirakud project.

(ii) Copper is used to make electric wires.

(iii) India’s location is advantageous for the generation of solar power.


(i) The Hirakud project generates power / provides water for irrigation for both the kharif and rabi crops / controls floods on the River Mahanadi/ / soil conservation/ fish culture/ industrial growth/water supply/inland waterways.

(ii) Copper is a good conductor of electricity / is ductile and malleable and so is used to make electric wires. (Any one)

(iii) India lies between 8°N and 37°N with the Tropic of Cancer running through it and so receives a lot of sunlight with 300 clear days in a year. This is advantageous for the generation of solar power.

(d) Briefly answer the following:

(i) Name a mineral used to generate nuclear power.

(ii) Why is petroleum often referred to as “liquid gold”?

(iii)State one disadvantage of using coal as a source of power.


(i) Uranium / Thorium / Beryllium/Plutonium/Zirconium (Any one)

(ii) Petroleum is a versatile mineral. It generates power / used as a fuel for vehicles and in factories / used as a raw material for products like plastics, tarpaulin, wax etc. / by-products like kerosene are very useful / Not even the smallest part of the crude oil goes waste or remains unused and is therefore called liquid gold /because of high economic value.

(iii) It leads to pollution / it is exhaustible / it is non-renewable / heavy transport cost/ problem of disposal of residue/ health hazard.

Question 8:

(a) Mention two steps taken by the government to boost agricultural production in India.


– Promoting availability of good seeds to the farmers (high yielding variety).

– Setting up of agriculture price commission to give better price for agricultural products.

– Providing easy loans to the farmers. (NABARD).

– Starting new irrigation projects.

– Consolidation of land holding.

– Subsidies on fertilizers, free electricity/ diesel to run the water pump.

− Introduction of green revolution

− Setting up of agricultural universities

(b) (i) Name two varieties of millet grown in India.

(ii) What is the soil requirement for growing millet?


(i) Jowar/ Bajra/ Ragi

(ii) Sandy alluvium/ black/ red

(c) Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:

ICSE Class 10 Geography Qs Paper 2019 Solution-2

(i) Mention the climatic condition that is suitable for the cultivation of this crop.

(ii) Name the state that produces the largest amount of this crop.

(iii) In which cropping season is this crop grown in India?


(i) Temperature: 18 °C to 32 °C.

Rainfall: 50 cm to 80 cm / 200 frost free days/ bright sunshine during harvest.

(ii) Maharashtra/Gujarat

(iii) Kharif

(d) Give a geographical reason for each of the following:

(i) Cultivation of wheat is confined to the northern part of India.

(ii) Practicing mixed farming gives security to farmers.

(iii) Ratoon cropping is gaining popularity among sugarcane cultivators.


(i) Ideal temperature of 10 °C to 20 °C that is suitable growth of wheat is available in north India / In north India winter rain occurs which is found suitable for its growth/ 50 cm – 100 cm rain in north-west India. Wheat is a temperate crop. India is a warm country so cool climate is found in the north during winter. (Any one)

(ii) During drought and crop failures it provides income from livestock/ extra income.

(iii) Mature faster/ saves time and money/ less labour required/cost effective. (Any one)

Question 9:

(a) Where do the following iron and steel plants get their supply of iron ore from?

(i) Bhilai Iron and Steel Plant.

(ii) Vishakhapatnam Steel Plant.


(i) Iron Ore – Dalli-Rajhara Range / Singhbhum/Keonjhar/ Durg/Bastar/ Chandipur. (Any one)

(ii) Iron Ore – Bailadila mines in Chhattisgarh/ Bastar.

(b) ‘Karnataka has developed as an important state for the growth of the Silk

industry.’ Give two reasons to justify the statement.

Answer: Climate is suitable for sericulture / large market / skilled workers/ latest technology available / favourable government policies/ non-alkaline water or soft water present/licenced distributers present.

(c) With reference to sugar industries answer the following questions:

(i) Why should these industries be located close to the sugarcane growing areas?

(ii) Name two by-products of the sugar industry.

(iii) Mention one leading sugar producing state in North India and one in South India.


(i) Sugarcane starts losing its sucrose after it is cut / to reduce the transportation cost/must be crushed within 48 hours/ sugarcane is perishable.

(ii) Molasses / bagasse / press mud. (Any two)

(iii) North India – Uttar Pradesh / Bihar / Haryana / Punjab (Any one)

South India – Maharashtra / Karnataka / Tamil Nadu / Andhra Pradesh / Telangana (Any one)

(d) Give a reason for each of the following:

(i) Ahmedabad is an important cotton textile producing centre in India.

(ii) Cottage industries are significant for our economy

(iii) Petrochemical industries are usually located close to the oil refineries.


(i) Humid climate/availability of raw material/availability of skilled and unskilled labours/availability of cheap hydroelectricity/good transport network/ port nearby/ market/ capital or credit facility available/ soft water available/ government support. (Any one)


– Provides employment

– Brings in foreign exchange

− Need less built up area

– Can be started with less capital investment

− Uses local raw material

– Keeps the traditions alive from one generation to another

Fulfil local need/ low cost of transport (Any one)

(iii) Raw materials used in petrochemical industries are mainly derived from petroleum

hence these industries are located close to oil refineries.

Question 10:

(a) “Roadways are an important means of transport in India”.

Give two reasons to justify the statement.


− They are cheap means of transport.

− They link villages to the urban areas.

− They can be constructed in the remote areas / difficult terrain / high altitudes / steep


− They provide door-to-door service.

− They are safer means of transport for perishable items.

− Flexible usage.

(b) (i) Why are South Indian rivers not ideal for the inland water transport?

(ii) Mention one advantage of coastal shipping.


(i) South Indian rivers are seasonal in nature.

  • They have rapids and water falls and cataracts.
  • They will have little water in hot season.
  • Undulating terrain
  • Short river/swift river

(ii) Less maintenance cost / cheapest means of transport / ideal for export and import of bulky goods / causes less pollution/ fuel efficient.

(c) Give a reason for each of the following:

(i) Nearly seventy percent of Indians do not use air transport.

(ii) A well-developed transport network is important for industrial growth.

(iii) Water transport is not as popular as land transport in India.


(i) Air transport is very expensive hence it is not used by many people/ carry less luggage/not comfortable for long journey/ no airport in small town.

(ii) Transportation helps in easy movement of raw materials and finished goods/ connect backward areas/ mobility of skilled and unskilled labour/ decentralised growth.

(iii) Water transport is limited to areas which have navigable water source. It is slow and not well connected.

(d) (i) “The railway is an important means of transport as compared to airways.” State two reasons to support the statement.

(ii) Mention one disadvantage of rail transport.



– It carries bulky raw materials and heavy goods.

– It is cheaper than airways.

– Caters to more number of passengers at one time.

– Can carry more amount of goods.

− Comfortable for long journey


– The flow of goods and passengers are hampered in India as the railways’ operation is on three gauges.

– Shifting from one gauge to another is time consuming and expensive.

– Perishable items cannot stand the delay.

– The tracks are not able to carry increased goods and accidents are becoming frequent.

– Poor maintenance of tracks.

– Outdated engines and compartments.

– It causes pollution.

− Overcrowded

− Delays

Question 11:

(a) What impact does the waste accumulation have on the following?

(i) Quality of air around us.

(ii) Quality of water around us.


(i) Waste accumulation results in air pollution which may cause acid rain and several air- borne diseases/ bad odour/release harmful greenhouse gases/ chemicals near the underground water by leakage.

(ii) Water pollution affects human health and also animal life on land it also affects aquatic animals adversely/ eutrophication/biomagnification.

(b) Mention two ways in which the decomposition of waste in open areas can affect human health.

Answer: It may lead to foul smell and several diseases such as malaria, cholera etc., may be caused due to flies and other insects that carry the disease causing bacteria which grow in the decomposing waste / it produces harmful gases which pollute the air around us / rainwater may carry the pathogens from the waste to our water bodies and so pollute the water which affects human health/ biomagnification.

(c) (i) What can an individual do to reduce waste at home?

(ii) Why must segregation of waste be done before disposal?

(iii) How has composting proven to be a great help in managing waste?


(i) Individual may use carry bags / adopt reusable containers and utensils / use rechargeable batteries / use computer storage system rather than paper / recycle used paper. compost solid kitchen waste/ reduce usage/reuse by following 3R. (One point)

(ii) It will help in safe disposal and will cause lesser pollution.

(iii) It not only reduces waste accumulation but also increases plant growth.

(d) Give a reason for each of the following:

(i) Trees must be planted in the industrial areas.

(ii) Chemical fertilizers must be replaced by organic manure.

(iii) Plastic and polythene products must be banned.


(i) Trees give out oxygen and take in carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emitted by industries/trees control noise pollution/air pollution/ maintain temperature.

(ii) The chemicals in chemical fertilizers combine with plant nutrients and the plants are consumed by animals and humans which is harmful (benefits of organic manure or harmful effects of chemical fertilisers may be written)

(iii) Plastic and polythene products must be banned because they are non-biodegradable and take hundreds of years to decompose. If these plastics are ingested by animals like cattle or marine life like whales, it can lead to their death. They cause clogging of drains/ pollute soil/ obstruct the seepage of water.

We hope this information on “ICSE Class 10 Geography Question Papers Solutions 2019” helped students in their exam preparation. To get the year wise ICSE Class 10 Previous Years Question papers along with solutions for other subjects, click here. Keep learning and download BYJU’S App to access interactive study videos.

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