Alternating current (A.C.) changes its magnitude and polarity at a regular interval of time. The time interval between a definite value of two successive cycles is the time period and the number of cycles or number of periods per second is frequency. The maximum displacement of the wave in both the directions is called the amplitude.

Alternating current can also be produced by different methods. One common method is by using a basic single coil AC generator, which consists of two-pole magnets and a single loop of wire having a rectangular shape. In a generator, mechanical energy gets converted into electrical energy.

Download Alternating Current Previous Year Solved Questions PDF

AC is the form of current that is mostly used in home appliances. Some of the examples of alternating current include audio signal, radio signal, etc.

## JEE Main Previous Year Solved Questions on Alternating Current

**Q1: A series AC circuit containing an inductor (20 mH), a capacitor (120 F) and a resistor (60 Î© ) is driven by an AC source of 24 V/50 Hz. The energy dissipated in the circuit in 60 s is **

(a) 3.39 Ã— 10^{3} J

(b) 5.65 Ã— 10^{2} J

(c) 2.26 Ã— 10^{3} J

(d) 5.17 Ã— 10^{2} J

**Solution**

Impedance,

Z = (R^{2} + (X_{C} – X_{L})^{2})^{1/2}

X_{L} = Ï‰L = (2Ï€vL)

X_{L }= 6.28 Ã— 50 Ã— 20 Ã— 10^{â€“3} = 6.28 Î©

q_{V}B(1/Ï‰C) = 1/(2Ï€vC) = 1/(6.28 x 120 x 10^{-6} x 50) = 26.54 Î©

Z = ((60)^{2} + (20.26)^{2})^{Â½}

Z^{2} = 4010 Î©^{2}

Average power dissipated, Pav = Îµ** _{rms} **I

_{rms}cos Î¦

P_{av} = Îµ** _{rms }**Ã— (Îµ

**/Z) x (R/Z)**

_{rms}P_{av} = (Îµ** _{rms }^{2}**/Z

^{2}) x R = [(24)

^{2}/4010] x 60 W = 8.62 W

Energy dissipated in 60 S = 8.62 x 60 = 5.17 x 10^{2} J

**Answer: (b) 5.65 Ã— 10 ^{2} J **

**Q2: In an AC generator, a coil with N turns, all of the same area A and total resistance R, rotates with frequency in a magnetic field B. The maximum value of emf generated in the coil is **

(a) NAB

(b) NABR

(c) NAB

(d) NABR

**Answer: (a) In an a.c. generator, maximum emf = NAB **

**Q3: The phase difference between the alternating current and emf is Ï€/2. Which of the following cannot be the constituent of the circuit? **

(a) LC

(b) L alone

(c) C alone

(d) R, L

**Solution**

R and L cause phase difference to lie between 0 and Ï€/2 but never 0 and Ï€/2 at extremities

**Answer: (d) R, L **

**Q4: Alternating current cannot be measured by D.C ammeter because **

(a) A.C cannot pass through D.C ammeter

(b) A.C changes direction

(c) The average value of current for the complete cycle is zero

(d) D.C. ammeter will get damaged

**Solution**

The average value of A.C for the complete cycle is zero. Hence A.C cannot be measured by D.C ammeter

**Answer: (c) The average value of current for the complete cycle is zero **

**Q5: A power transmission line feeds input power at 2300 V to a step-down transformer with its primary windings having 4000 turns. The output power is delivered at 230 V by the transformer. If the current in the primary of the transformer is 5 A and its efficiency is 90%, the output current would be **

(a) 25 A

(b) 50 A

(c) 45 A

(d) 35 A

**Solution **

Given Ñ”_{p} = 2300 V, N_{p} = 4000

Ñ”_{s} = 230 V,

I_{p} = 5 A,

Î· = 90% = 0.9

Î· = P_{o}/P_{i} = (Ñ”_{s}I_{s})/(Ñ”_{p}I_{p})

I_{s} = Î·Ñ”_{p}I_{p}/Ñ”_{s }= (0.9 x 2300 x 5)/230 = 45 A

**Answer: (c) 45 A**

**Q6: An alternating voltage v(t) = 220 sin100Ï€t volts is applied to a purely resistive load of 50. The time taken for the current to rise from half of the peak value to the peak value is **

(a) 3.3 ms

(b) 5 ms

(c) 2.2 ms

(d) 7.2 ms

**Solution**

Î”Î¦ = Ï€/3 = (100Ï€)Î”t

Î”t = (10^{3}/300) = 3.3 ms

**Answer: (a) 3.3 ms **

**Q7: A circuit connected to an ac source of emf e = e _{0} sin(100 t) with t in seconds, gives a phase difference of Ï€/4 between the emf e and current I. Which of the following circuits will exhibit this? **

(a) RC circuit with R = 1 kÎ© and C = 10Î¼F

(b) RL circuit with R = 1 kÎ© and L = 10mH

(c) RC circuit with R = 1 kÎ© and C = 1Î¼F

(d) RL circuit with R = 1 kÎ© and L = 1mH

**Solution**

Xc = R

1/Ï‰C = R

1/100 = RC

R = 10^{3} Î©

C = 10^{-5} F

**Answer (a) RC circuit with R = 1 kÎ© and C = 10Î¼F **

**Q8: In an a.c. circuit, the instantaneous e.m.f. and current is given by **

**e = 100sin30t, i = 20sin(30t – Ï€/4) **

**In one cycle of A.C, the average power consumed by the circuit and the wattless current are, respectively **

(a) 50, 10

(b) 1000/âˆš2 ,10

(c) 50/âˆš2, 0

(d) 50, 0

**Solution**

P_{avg} = V_{rms}I_{rms}cosÎ¸

P_{avg} = (V_{0}/âˆš2) (I_{0}/âˆš2)cosÎ¸

= (100/âˆš2) (20/âˆš2)cos45^{0}

P_{avg} = 1000/âˆš2 watt

Wattless current = I_{rms}sinÎ¸

Wattless current = (I_{0}/âˆš2)sinÎ¸

= (20/âˆš2)sin45^{0}

= 10 amp

**Answer: (b) 1000/âˆš2 ,10 **

**Q9: A coil having n turns and resistance R Î© is connected with a galvanometer of resistance 4RÎ©. This combination is moved in time t seconds from a magnetic field W _{1} weber to W_{2} weber. The induced current in the circuit is **

(a) -(W_{2} – W_{1})/5Rnt

(b) -n(W_{2} – W_{1})/5Rt

(c) -(W_{2} – W_{1})/Rnt

(d) -(W_{2} – W_{1})/5Rnt

**Solution**

The emf induced in the coil is e = -n(dÎ¦/dt)

Induced current, I = e/Râ€™ = – (n/Râ€™)(dÎ¦/dt) ——(1)

Given, Râ€™ = R + 4R = 5R

dÎ¦ = W_{2} – W_{1}

dt = t

(here, W_{1 }and W_{2 }are flux associated with one turn)

Substituting the given values in equa(1) we get

I = (-n/5R)(W_{2} – W_{1}/t)

**Answer: (b) -n(W _{2} – W_{1})/5Rt**

**Q10: A series AC circuit containing an inductor (20 mH), a capacitor (120 Î¼F) and a resistor (60 Î©) is driven by an AC source of 24 V/50 Hz. The energy dissipated in the circuit in 60 s is**

(a) 5.65 x 10^{2} J

(b) 2.26 x10^{3} J

(c) 5.17 x 10^{2} J

(d) 3.39 x 10^{3} J

**Solution**

Given

R = 60Î©, f = 50 Hz , Ï‰ = 2Ï€f = 100Ï€ and v = 24v

C= 120 Î¼F = 120 x10^{-6} F

X_{c} = 1/Ï‰C = 1/(100Ï€ x 120 x 10^{-6}) = 26.52 Î©

X_{L} **= **Ï‰L = 100Ï€ x 120 x 10^{-3 }= 2Ï€Î©

X_{c} – X_{L} = 20.24 â‰ˆ 20

Z =[(R^{2} + (X_{c} – X_{L})^{2}]^{Â½}

Z = 20 âˆš10 Î©

Cos Î¦ = R/Z = 60/20âˆš10 = 3/âˆš10

Pavg = VIcos Î¦ = v/z = (v^{2}/z)cosÎ¦ = 8.64 watt

Energy dissipated(Q) in time t = 60 s is

Q = P.t = 8.64 x 60 = 5.17 x 10^{2} J

**Answer: (c) 5.17 x 10 ^{2} J**

**Q11: An alternating voltage V(t) = 220 sin100Ï€t volts is applied to a purely resistive load of 50 Î©. The time taken for the current to rise from half of the peak value is**

(a) 5 ms

(b) 2.2 ms

(c) 7.2 ms

(d) 3.3 ms

**Solution**

As v(t) = 220 sin100Ï€t

So I(t) = (220/50) sin100Ï€t

I.e., I = I_{m} = sin100Ï€t

For I = I_{m}

t_{1} = (Ï€/2) x (1/100Ï€) = (1/200) sec,

And for I = I_{m}/2

â‡’ (I_{m}/2) = I_{m}sin(100Ï€t_{2})

â‡’ (Ï€/6) = 100Ï€t_{2}

â‡’ t_{2}= (1/600) s

âˆ´ t_{req }= (1/200) – (1/600) = (2/600) = (1/300)s =3.3 ms

**Answer: (d) 3.3 ms**

**Q12: An arc lamp requires a direct current of 10A at 80V to function. If it is connected to a 220V (RMS), 50 Hz AC supply, the series inductor needed for it to work is close to **

(a) 0.065 H

(b) 80 H

(c) 0.08 H

(d) 0.044 H

**Solution**

I = 10A

V = 80 V

R = 8 Î©

10 = 220/(8^{2} + X_{L}^{2})^{Â½}

64 + X_{L}^{2}= 484

X_{L }= âˆš420

2Ï€ x 50L = âˆš420

L = âˆš420/100Ï€

L = 0.065 H

**Answer: (a) 0.065 H**

**Q13: In a series, LCR circuit R = 200Î© and the voltage and the frequency of the main supply is 220 V and 50 Hz respectively. On taking out the capacitance from the circuit the current lags behind the voltage by 30 ^{0}. On taking out the inductor from the circuit the current leads the voltage by 30^{0}. The power dissipated in the LCR circuit is **

(a) 242 W

(b) 305 W

(c) 210 W

(d) Zero

**Solution**

Tan Î¦ = (X_{L} – X_{c})/R

Tan 30^{0} = X_{c}/R = X_{c} = R/âˆš3

Tan 30^{0} = X_{L}/R = X_{L} = R/âˆš3

X_{L} = X_{c }â‡’ Condition for resonance

So Î¦ = 0^{0}

P = VIcos0^{0}

P = V^{2}/R = (220)^{2}/200 = 242 W

**Answer: (a) 242 W**