Non-polar Covalent Bond

What is Non-polar Covalent Bond?

A non-polar covalent bond is a type of chemical bond that is formed when electrons are shared equally between two atoms. Thus, in an atom, the number of electrons shared by the adjacent atoms will be the same.

The covalent bond is also termed as nonpolar because the difference in electronegativity is mostly negligible. It further means that there is no separation of charges between the two atoms or both the atoms have similar electronegativity. This type of bond is also formed when atoms that share a polar bond arrange themselves in such a manner where the electric charges tend to cancel each other out.

A non-polar covalent bond can occur between two identical non-metal atoms or between different atoms.

Non-polar Covalent Compounds

Covalent compounds in which there is no electronegativity difference are known as non-polar covalent compounds. In these compounds, there is no change of electronegativity such that there is no motion of bond pair of electrons towards the bonded atoms.

Hence, there is no bond or dipole moment between the atoms of a molecule and no development of charges on the atoms further making molecule non-polar and non conducting.

Properties Of Non-polar Covalent Compounds

1. Physical State: These are mainly existing as gases and less existence as liquids

2. Nature: These are very soft in nature.

3. Solubility: These are insoluble in water or less soluble in water. But these are more soluble in non-polar solvents like CCl4, CHCl3 etc.

4. Conductivity: These are insulators since they have no chargeable particles.

5. Boiling And Melting Points: since they don’t have any interaction or polarity they have very low boiling and melting points,

6. Dipole moment: Since the bond is no more polar they have zero dipole moment.

Also Read: Polar Covalent Bond

Examples For Non-Polar Solids

The common examples are He, Ne, Ar, Benzene, H2, N2, O2, Cl2, Carbon dioxide, Methane, etc. All these do not show polarity in their bonds instead they show zero dipole moment.

Differences Between Polar And Non-Polar Covalent Solids

Polar Covalent Solids

  • These can exist as solids and liquids.
  • These are more soluble in water.
  • These are insoluble in benzene, chloroform etc
  • Good conductors of heat and electricity.

Read More: Chemical Bonding

Non-Polar Covalent Solids

  • These are majorly gases.
  • These are insoluble in water.
  • These are soluble in chloroform
  • Insulators.
  • London dispersion forces exist between the atoms.

Solved Questions

1. Why is dipole moment zero for non-polar solids?

Answer: The dipole moment is zero because there are no forces of attraction and bond moments between the atoms in the molecules.

2. Why non-polar solids are insulators?

Answer: They are categorized as insulators because there is no ionisation between the particles hence there are no charge-carrying ions.

3. Give examples for non-polar solids.

Answer: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Helium, etc.

4. What type of intermolecular force exists between non-polar solids?

Answer: London dispersion forces exist between non-polar solids.

5. Why are no bond moments present in a hydrogen molecule?

Answer: Because there is no difference in electronegativity between hydrogen atoms.