Sound is a vibration that travels through the medium in the form of longitudinal waves. This means that sound waves are waves in which the particles of the medium vibrate parallel to the direction of wave propagation. Sound waves are called mechanical waves since they require a medium to propagate. The medium can be solids, liquids or gases.
Property 1: Pitch/Frequency
The perception of frequency of sound by human ear within the range of human hearing is called the pitch. The higher the frequency of the sound the higher is its pitch and a lower frequency means a lower pitch. Frequency is the number of periodic compression and rarefaction cycles that occurs each second as the wave propagates through the medium.
Property 2: Amplitude/Loudness
The amplitude of the sound waves determines its loudness. The amplitude of the sound is a measure of the magnitude of the maximum disturbance of sound. The amplitude is also a measure of the energy of vibration. More energetic vibration causes a larger amplitude.
Property 3: Speed
The speed at which the sound waves travel through the medium is called the speed of sound. The speed of sound is different for different mediums. Sound travels fastest in solids since the atoms in a solid are closely packed.
Property 4: Reflection of sound
When sound waves hit the surface of a solid or light it bounces back to the same medium. This is called the reflection of sound. Sound waves, like light waves, follow the laws of reflection.
Property 5: Timbre
Timbre is the property used to differentiate the sounds of the same frequency. Timbre depends on the material through which the sound is produced.