|Unit 1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry (Term 1)
Importance and scope of chemistry.
Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical
combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and
molecules. Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass;
percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical
reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
|Unit 12 Organic Chemistry (Term 1)
General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and
quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic
compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive
effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals,
carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of
| Unit 2 Structure of Atom (Term 2)
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and
isobars. Thompson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and
its limitations, Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells
and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship,
Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers,
shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals –
Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic
configuration of atoms, stability of half-filled and completely filled
|Unit 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties ( Term 2)
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic
table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table,
periodic trends in properties of elements –atomic radii, ionic radii,
inert gas radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy,
electronegativity, valence. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number
greater than 100.
|Unit 5 States of Matter :Gases and Liquids ( Term 2)
Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding,
melting and boiling points. role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of
the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s
law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro
number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds
(elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of
gases, critical temperature. Liquid State – Vapour pressure, viscosity and
surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
| Unit 6 Thermodynamics (Term 2)
Concepts of system, types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy,
extensive and intensive properties, state functions.
First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, heat
capacity and specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH, Hess’s law of
constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation,
combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition,
ionization, solution and dilution.
Introduction of entropy as a state function, Second law of
thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for
spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium.
Third law of thermodynamics –Brief introduction
|Unit 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure ( Term 3)
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis
structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic
bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent
molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d
orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of
homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only).
|Unit 13 Hydrocarbons (Term 3)
Classification of Hydrocarbons.
Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only),
physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism
of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical
isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation; chemical
reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides
(Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation,
mechanism of electrophilic addition.
Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical
properties, methods of preparation,
chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of –
hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Aromatic hydrocarbons – Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene:
resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic
substitution – nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s
alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted
benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
|Unit 7 Equilibrium (Term 3)
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of
equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting
equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium – ionization
of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization,
ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength concept of pH.
|Unit 7 Equilibrium Contd. (Term 4)
Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solutions, Henderson
equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative
|Unit 8 Redox Reactions (Term 4)
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number,
balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electrons and changes in oxidation numbers ,
applications of redox reactions
|Unit 9 Hydrogen (Term 4)
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation,
properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides – ionic, covalent and
interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water;
hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, use and structure; hydrogen
as a fuel.
|Unit 10 s-Block Elements (Term 4)
(Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
Group 1 and Group 2 elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous
properties of the first element
of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties
(such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical
reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds:
Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium
hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.
CaO, CaCO3, and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological
importance of Mg and Ca.
|Unit 11 Some p-Block Elements (Term 4)
General Introduction to p-Block Elements
Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration,
occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical
reactivity, anomalous properties of the first element of the group;
Boron: physical and chemical properties, some important compounds:
borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminum’s uses, reactions with
acids and alkalis.
Group 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration,
occurrence, variation of properties,
oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of
first element. Carbon – catenation,
allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some
important compounds: oxides.
Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride,
silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses.
|Unit 14 Environmental Chemistry (Term 4)
Environmental pollution – Air, water and soil pollution, chemical
reactions in the atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain,
ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer,
Greenhouse effect and global warming – pollution due to industrial
wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution,
strategy for control of environmental pollution.