Agriculture is the science that deals with the cultivation of plants and the rearing of animals for human use. Plants of the same kind, when grown at a large scale, is called crop. The chapter Crop Management and Production tells us about the variety of crops grown in our country. Here, students also learn the tricks and techniques the farmer uses in their fields for quality and quantity production. Besides, the chapter depicts ideas on the importance of farmers and brings to our notice that the farmer is the backbone of our country.
Access Lakhmir Singh Science Class 8 Solutions for Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management
Very Short Answer Type Questions
1. Which agricultural practice is carried out with the help of a sickle?
Harvesting is the agricultural practice is carried out with the help of a sickle.
2. What name is given to the cutting and gathering of a food crop like wheat or paddy?
The cutting and gathering of mature food crops like wheat or paddy is known as harvesting.
3. Name the tool (or implement) used in the traditional harvesting of crops.
Sickle is the harvesting tool that is used in the traditional harvesting of crops.
4. Name the process of beating out the grains from the harvested crops.
The process of beating out the grains from the harvested crop plants is called threshing.
5. Name the machine used in recovering the grain from already cut crop.
Combine is the machine used in recovering the grain from already cut crop.
6. Name the machine which does the cutting of standing crops and recovers the grain too.
Combine is the machine that does the cutting of standing crops and recovers the grain too.
7. Name the process in which grains are separated from chaff and hay with the help of wind.
The process in which grains are separated from chaff and hay with the help of wind is called winnowing.
8. Name three food materials obtained from animals.
Milk, meat, and eggs are obtained from animals.
9. Name two domestic animals which are used to obtained milk.
Cow and buffalo are the two domesticated animals that are used to obtain milk.
10. Name one meat yielding animal and one egg yielding animal.
Meat yielding: Goat
Egg yielding: Hen
11. Name an animal food obtained from an insect.
Honey is the food obtained from insects.
12. What name is given to that branch of agriculture which deals with feeding, shelter, health, and breeding of domestic animals?
The branch of agriculture which deals with feeding, shelter, health, and breeding of domestic animals is animal husbandry.
13. Name one major food nutrient provided by fish.
The cod liver oil obtained from fish is rich in vitamin D is the major nutrient provided by fish.
14. Name the vitamin/vitamins present in cod liver oil.
The cod liver oil obtained from fish is rich in vitamin D.
15. Name one Government agency which is involved in procuring food grains (like wheat and rice) from farmers and storing them properly.
Food Corporation of India is the government agency responsible for procuring food grains (like wheat and rice) from farmers and storing them properly.
16. What type of organisms grow on stored food grains having higher moisture content?
Fungs and moulds are the organisms that grow on stored food grains having higher moisture content.
17. Which crop is generally grown between two kinds of cereal crops in crop rotation to restore the fertility of soil?
Leguminous crops like pulses and beans are generally grown between two kinds of cereal crops in crop rotation to restore the fertility of the soil.
18. State one advantage of growing a leguminous crop between two kinds of cereal crops.
Growing a leguminous crop between two kinds of cereal crops restores the fertility of the soil.
19. Name the nitrogen-fixing bacteria present in root nodules of leguminous plants.
The nitrogen-fixing bacteria present in root nodules of leguminous plants is rhizobium bacteria.
20. Which agricultural practice comes first: harvesting or weeding?
Weeding is the first agricultural practice.
21. Which is the first step in the cultivation of a crop?
The first step in the cultivation of a crop preparation of soil.
22. For what purpose is a hoe used?
Hoe is used for removing the seeds and loosening the soil.
23. Name the implement used in sowing.
The implement used in sowing is seed drill.
24. Name the practice used for cultivating paddy.
Transplantation is the practice used for cultivating paddy.
25. Name the two types of substances which are added to two fields by the farmers to maintain the fertility of the soil.
The two types of substances which are added two the fields by the farmers to maintain the fertility of soil are manure and fertilizer.
26. Some grass is growing in a wheat field. What will it be known as?
Grass growing in a white field is known as weed.
27. Name one crop which can tolerate standing water (water-logging) in the field and one which cannot.
One crop which can tolerate standing water is paddy one which cannot is wheat.
28. Which is the best time for the removal of weeds?
The best time for the removal of weeds is before the production of flowers and seeds from the crop.
29. Name two methods of irrigation with conserve water.
Two methods of irrigation with conserving water are drip irrigation and sprinkler system.
30. Fill in the following blanks
(a) The same kind of plants grown and cultivated on a large scale at a place is called ____________
(b) The first step before growing crops is ____________of soil.
(c) For growing a crop, sufficient sunlight, ____________, and ____________ from the soil are essential.
(d) Damaged seeds would ____________on top of water.
(e) Crop rotation helps in the replenishment of soil with ____________
(f) The supply of water to crops at different intervals is called ____________
(g) The unwanted plants present in a crop field are called ____________
(h) Dried ____________leaves are used for storing food grains at home.
(i) Many people living in the ____________areas consume fish as a major part of their diet.
(a) The same kind of plants grown and cultivated on a large scale at a place is called crop
(b) The first step before growing crops is the preparation of soil.
(c) For growing a crop, sufficient sunlight, nutrients, and water from the soil are essential.
(d) Damaged seeds would float on top of water.
(e) Crop rotation helps in the replenishment of soil with nitrogen.
(f) The supply of water to crops at different intervals is called irrigation.
(g) The unwanted plants present in a crop field are called weeds.
(h) Dried neem leaves are used for storing food grains at home.
(i) Many people living in the coastal areas consume fish as a major part of their diet.
31. (a) Why is it is necessary to dry the harvested food grains before storage?
(b) What are the two ways in which farmers store food grains?
(a) It is necessary to dry the harvested food grains before storage because the grains contain the moisture contents. The moisture content in the grains promotes the growth of fungus and moulds in the grains.
(b) The two ways in which farmers store food grains are in jute bags and in metal bins at home.
32. (a)Out of drip system and sprinkler system of irrigation, which one is more suitable : (a) for uneven land?
(b) for sandy soil?
(c) for watering fruit plants?
(d) where availability of water is poor?
(a) Sprinkler system
(b) Sprinkler system
(c) Drip irrigation
(d) Drip irrigation
33. (a)What are weeds? Name any one weed found in a crop field.
(b)How do weeds affect the growth of crops?
(a) The unwanted plants which grow in the fields are called weeds. Oat is the weed found in the crop field.
(b) Weeds try to absorb all the water, nutrients, light being given to crop and damage it.
34. Explain how, the irrigation requirements depend on the nature of the crop.
The irrigation requirement depends on the nature of the crop because some of the crops need a lot of water and some of the crops need a very small amount of water. For example Paddy crop needs a lot of water whereas crops like wheat, gram and cotton, etc., do not require so much water.
35. Explain how, the irrigation requirements of a crop depend on the nature of the soil in which the crop is grown.
The irrigation conditions of a crop depend on the nature of the soil in which the crop is grown for the following reasons: If the water-retaining capacity of the soil is higher then there is no requirement for irrigating the soil many times as the soil possesses the capacity of holding water for a long time.
36. Describe the sprinkler system of irrigation. State its advantages.
Sprinkler irrigation is a method of spreading water similar to natural rainfall. Water is distributed through a system of pipelines which is sprayed through the air by rotating sprinklers so that it breaks up into smaller droplets of water as they fall to the ground.
Advantages of sprinkler systems are:
- It is affordable and completely easy to set up.
- Frequent application of water can be supplied to the plants without manual effort
- The water distribution will always be equal
- The amount of water being supplied can be controlled and wastage of water is avoided
- Sprinkler irrigation is suitable for setting up in all types of soil.
- This system can be used for other purposes as well such as cooling during high temperatures.
37. Explain the drip system of irrigation. State two advantages of the drip system of irrigation.
Drip irrigation is a type of micro-irrigation soil has the potential to save water and nutrients by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either from above the soil surface or buried below the surface. Drip irrigation systems distribute water through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters.
Advantages of drip irrigation:
- High availability of water and nutrients
- Doses of water and nutrients tailored to the plant’s development needs
- No saturation and good soil aeration
- Avoids high salinity caused by excessive fertilizer application
- No wetting of foliage that can result in fungal diseases
38. How do the irrigation requirements of a wheat crop differ from that of a paddy crop?
The irrigation requirements of a wheat crop differ from that of a paddy crop because wheat is a Rabi crop whereas paddy is a Kharif crop. Wheat requires a moderate amount of irrigation whereas paddy requires plenty of irrigation. Kharif crops are those which are sown in the rainy season, The rabi crops are grown in the winter season. Paddy is the Kharif crop but the wheat is the rabi crop. Therefore, wheat requires more water for irrigation.
39. Explain why, the frequency of irrigation of crops is higher in the summer season.
In summer, the frequency of irrigation of crop increases as the rate of evaporation from the soil and leaves becomes higher. The time and frequency of irrigation diversify from season to season, crop to crop, and soil to soil. As a result, the frequency of irrigation increases in the summer season and decreases in the winter season.
40. How are weeds removed from the crop fields? Name one implement used for weeding.
Weeds are removed from the crop fields by the following means:
- By hand. Walking the field and pulling out the weeds.
- By mechanical means: Using trowel through the field that will fill up the space between the crop rows and cut/kill the weeds.
- By chemical means. Using a herbicide to kill the weeds.
One implement used for weeding is trowel.
41. If wheat is sown in the Kharif season, what would happen? Discuss.
If wheat is sown in the Kharif season (from June to October), then the whole crop might get destroyed because of many factors such as lack of optimum temperature, adaptability, availability of pests, etc. Kharif season includes the rainy season, which is not favourable for the growth of wheat crop. Therefore, wheat crop should not be sown during this season.
42. Which of the following are Kharif crops and which are rabi crops?
Wheat, Paddy, Gram, Maize, Mustard, Cotton, Soyabean, Linseed, Peas, Groundnut
Kharif crops: Paddy, Maize, Cotton, Soyabean, and Groundnut.
Rabi crops: Wheat, Gram, Mustard, Cotton, Linseed, and Peas.
43. What is a crop? Give two examples of crops.
Crops are plants grown by the farmers. Agriculture is the backbone of our country. It is the major occupation in the rural areas. The cultivation of crops depends primarily on the weather and soil conditions. Example: Maize and paddy.
44. What are the two types of crops based on seasons? Give one e ample of each type.
The crops are of the following types depending upon the season in which they are grown:
- The crops which are grown in the monsoon season in the month of June-September are known as Kharif crops. For eg., maize, millet, and cotton.
- Such crops require a lot of water and hot weather for proper growth.
- The crops that are grown in the winter season and harvested in the spring, i.e., from the month of October to March are called Rabi crops.
- Wheat, gram, and mustard are some of the Rabi crops.
- Such crops require a warm climate for the germination and maturation of seeds.
45. Name the various agricultural practices in the right sequence in which they are undertaken by the farmers.
The various agricultural practices which they are undertaken by the farmers are:
- Preparation of soil
- Adding manure and fertilizers
- Protecting from weeds
46. Describe briefly, how soil is prepared for sowing the seeds.
Soil is prepared before sowing the seeds. The soil is loosened to increase the absorption of water and manures. Loosening of soil particles adds humus and nutrients in the soil that increases crop yields. Tilling or loosening the soil is done by ploughs which are pulled by a pair of bulls. Tractor driven cultivators are also used to loosen the soil.
47. Why do farmers carry out the levelling of the ploughed fields?
The levelling of ploughed fields prevents the top fertile soil from being carried away by strong winds or washed away by rain water. The levelling of ploughed fields helps in the uniform distribution of water in the fields during irrigation. The levelling of ploughed fields helps in preventing the loss of moisture.
48. What are the advantages of sowing seeds with a seed drill?
A seed drill is composed of a funnel which has a long and pointed neck. The seed drill is attached to the plough-shaft. When seeds are kept in the funnel they drop gradually through the neck; when the field is being ploughed.
Advantages of sowing seeds with a drill:
- The seeds are sown at exact depth and interval
- Seeds get covered by soil
- Seeds are sown in regular rows and columns
- It saves time and labor
49. Explain why, the seeds should be sown at the right spacings.
The seeds should be sown at appropriate depth because seeds sown superficially can be eaten by the birds. But they should not be sown too deep also. In addition to this, the seeds should not be sown too close as the plants will not get sufficient space to grow and will compete for space, nutrients and sunlight.
50. What is ploughing (or tilling)? Name any two implements used for tilling the fields.
The process of loosening and turning the soil is called ploughing (tilling). Before sowing the seeds, it is necessary to loosen and turn the soil in the fields as to break it to the size of the grains which is done with the help of three main implements or tools to plough are hoe and cultivator.
Here, students learn about different types of crops, soil preparation, sowing, manures, fertilisers, harvesting and the transport of food from farmer to public. The chapter equally focuses on animals as well. Furthermore, learners get to know about the wide variety of food and other raw materials obtained from animals. They will get a clear picture of farming and the difficulties faced by the farmers.
Also, visit Lakhmir Singh Solutions for Class 8 Science to get complete solutions for all chapters.