Lakhmir Singh Solutions For Class 8 Science Chapter 7 Conservation Of Plants And Animals

Plants and animals are part and parcel of our life. We all know that without them our human life will not exist. However, we humans are exploiting these plants and animals. This chapter teaches us their importance, while we also learn about the ways to conserve these life forms. Man has created various wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, bio reserves and preserved them. We also learn about various extinct species and endangered species.

Download PDF Of Lakhmir Singh Science Class 8 Solutions For Chapter 7 Conservation Of Plants And Animals

 

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Access Lakhmir Singh Science Class 8 Solutions For Chapter 7

Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. (a) Which gas in the atmosphere is used by the trees and plants in photosynthesis?

(b) Which gas in the atmosphere traps the heat rays reflected by the earth?

Answer

(a) Carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere is used by the trees and plants in the process of photosynthesis.

(b) Carbon monoxide gas in the atmosphere traps the heat rays reflected by the earth.

2. Write one word for: Variety of plants, animals, and microorganisms found in an area.

Answer

Biodiversity is the one word given for a variety of plants, animals, and microorganisms found in an area.

3. What name is given to that part of the earth in which living organisms exist (or which supports life)?

Answer

The part of the earth in which all living organisms exist (or which supports life) is the biosphere.

4. What the three types of protected area which have been earmarked for the conservation of forest and wildlife.

Answer

Wildlife sanctuaries, National parks and Biosphere are the three types of protected area which have been earmarked for the conservation of forest and wildlife.

5. Name one Wildlife Sanctuary and one National park which is contained in Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve.

Answer

Bori Sanctuary, Panchmarhi sanctuary and Satpura national park are located in Panchmari bioreserve,

6. Name any five threatened wild animals that are protected and preserved in our wildlife Sanctuaries.

Answer

Tiger, Lion, Leopard, Indian rhinoceros, and Indian monkeys are the threatened wild animals that are protected and preserved in our wildlife sanctuaries.

7. For what purpose are National Parks in our country established?

Answer

The purpose of National parks in our country is to conserve and protect the endangered species. To maintain the ecological balance and also to give the shelter to the endemic species.

8. Name the first Reserve Forest of India.

Answer

The first reserve forest of India is Satpura National Park.

9. Name the objects of historical significance found in Satpura National Park.

Answer

The objects of historical significance found in Satpura National Park are called rock shelters. These rock shelters are the evidence of prehistoric human life in this jungle. Approximately 55 rock shelters have been identified in this park.

10. Name two animals that have vanished from Satpura National Park and two animals which are still found there.

Answer

Two animals that have vanished from Satpura National Park are White buffalo and Swamp deer. Two animals that are still found in Satpura National Park are Leopard and Tiger.

11. What name is given to those species

(a) that are on the verge of vanishing from earth?

(b) that have died out completely?

Answer

(a) Species that are on the verge of vanishing from the earth are called endangered species.

(b) Species that have died out completely are called extinct species.

12. Name the publication which contains a record of all the endangered species (plants and animals, etc).

Answer

The publication which contains a record of all the endangered species (plants and animals, etc) is the IUCN Red List of Threatened species.

13. Name any five endangered species of animals listed in the Red Data Book of India.

Answer

Five endangered species of animals listed in the Red Data Book of India are

  • Asiatic lion
  • Bengal tiger
  • Blue whale
  • Central Kashmir Vole
  • Banteng

14. What is the answer to deforestation?

Answer

The answer to deforestation is afforestation. It means planting of trees in an area where there was no previous tree cover. The other answer can be reforestation. It implies re-establishment of forest either naturally or artificially.

15. Name the various old paper products which can be recycled.

Answer

Various old paper products that can be recycled are:

  • Paper towels and napkins
  • Magazines
  • Greeting cards
  • Old gift tags
  • Cardboard

16. How many full-grown trees are needed to make 1 tonne of paper?

Answer

Twenty-five full-grown trees are needed to make one tonne of paper.

17. State one way in which we can reuse paper.

Answer

Old newspapers can be used as a paper bag to carry lightweight things. It can also be used to pack vegetables and store in the refrigerator.

18. Fill in the following blanks with suitable words

(a) Deforestation increases the level of___________in the atmosphere.

(b) Species found only in a particular area are known ___________ species.

(c) A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat is called___________

(d) Satpura National Park is a part of___________ Biosphere Reserve.

(e) Rd Data Book contains a record of___________ species.

(f) Migratory birds fly to faraway places because of___________ changes.

(g) In reforestation, the planted trees should be of the same___________ Which were cut down in that forest.

(h) Paper can be recycled___________ to___________times.

Answer

(a) Deforestation increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

(b) Species found only in a particular area is known as endemic species.

(c) A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat is called a wildlife sanctuary.

(d) Satpura National Park is a part of the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve.

(e) Rd Data Book contains a record of endangered species.

(f) Migratory birds fly to faraway places because of climatic changes.

(g) In reforestation, the planted trees should be of the same species which were cut down in that forest.

(h) Paper can be recycled five to seven times

Short Answer Type Questions

19. What is meant by deforestation? What are the causes of deforestation?

Answer

Removal of trees and plant life from a particular area for the construction of industries, agriculture, and other purposes is termed as deforestation. The causes of deforestation are as follows:

  • Procuring land for cultivation
  • Building houses and factories
  • Making furniture or using wood as fuel
  • Natural causes such as forest fire and severe drought can also cause deforestation

20. What are the consequences of deforestation?

Answer

Consequences of deforestation are:

  • Deforestation increases the temperature and pollution levels on the earth
  • It increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
  • It also reduces the level of groundwater

21. What is desertification? Name one human activity which may lead to desertification.

Answer

Desertification is a process of degradation of the land. Desertification is the degradation process by which a fertile land changes itself into a desert by losing its flora and fauna, this can be caused by drought, deforestation, climate change, human activities, or improper agriculture. Overgrazing, climatic change, and deforestation can lead to desertification.

22. Explain how, deforestation makes the soil infertile leading to desertification.

Answer

The soil particles are held together in a place by the roots of the plants, trees, and other vegetation. In the event of water flow or a high-speed wind over the top layer of the soil, the soil particles get removed easily as there are no plants to hold it in place. Thus, Soil erosion is increased by deforestation activities. Soil loses fertility and loses humus. Hence, a fertile land, fit for agriculture turns into a desert.

23. What is global warming? Name the gas responsible for causing global warming.

Answer

Global warming is a gradual increase in the earth’s temperature generally due to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants. The gases responsible for causing global warming are carbon dioxide, methane carbon monoxide.

24. How does deforestation reduce rainfall on the one hand and lead to floods on the other?

Answer

Deforestation leads to reduced rainfall because it leads to a reduction in natural recycling of moisture from the soils. This recycling takes place through vegetation and returns back in the form of rainfall.

Deforestation also leads to floods. This is because the water holding capacity of the soil is dependent on the number of trees. As the number of tresses reduces, the soil structure changes, and the soil the particles that are held firmly gets disturbed. When there is heavy rainfall, the rainwater does not seep down into the ground and is not absorbed by the tress. Hence, it leads to flooding.

25. Define the term ‘biosphere’.

Answer

The biosphere is defined as the global ecological system consisting of all the living organisms and these are protected from human intervention. These help in the protection of endangered species.

26. Define

(i) biodiversity

(ii) ecosystem

Answer

(i) Biodiversity is the variation among living organisms from different sources including terrestrial, marine and desert ecosystems, and the ecological complexes of which they are apart.

(ii) An ecosystem is a group or community composed of living and non-living things and their interactions with each other. They can be natural as well as artificial. Every ecosystem has two components, namely, biotic components and abiotic components.

27. What will happen if the natural habitat of a wild animal is destroyed?

Answer

The plant life forms an integral part of the ecosystem and these plants form the natural habitat of various animals of that ecosystem. All the basic necessities for an animal, like food, water, shelter, and protection is provided by the habitat in which the animal lives-in disturbing the habitat of the animal forces it to move to another place in search of food, water, shelter and protection. The animal, in due course, may get killed by other animals. Destroying the natural will ultimately threaten the existence of animals in that particular ecosystem and may lead to their extinction.

28. What is the purpose of establishing several Biosphere Reserve, Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks in India?

Answer

The purpose of establishing several Biosphere Reserve, Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks in India to conserve and protect the endangered species. To maintain the ecological balance and also to give the shelter to the endemic species.

29. State the role of the Biosphere Reserve.

Answer

Biosphere reserves are areas that protected from human intervention. These areas help in the conservation of endangered species. Each biosphere reserve is supposed to fulfill three harmonizing functions:

Conservation function: To conserve genetic resources, species, ecosystems, and landscapes

Development function: To promote sustainable human development and economic

Logistic support function: To provide support for research and analyzing the issues of conservation and sustainable development.

30. What is meant by the ‘flora’ and ‘fauna’ of an area? Give two examples of flora and two examples of the fauna of the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve.

Answer

Flora is a collective term for a group of plant life found in a particular region. The whole plant kingdom is represented by this name. Fauna represents the animal life indigenous to a region. In a nutshell, the term flora relates to all plant life and the term fauna represents all animal life. Let us dive deeper into these terms, exploring their origins and etymologies.

Flora in Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve: Mango and Silver ferns

Fauna in Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve: Wild boar and Tiger

31. What is meant by the ‘flora’ and ‘fauna’ and which belong to ‘flora of the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve? Sal, Arjun, Cheetal, Teak, Leopard, Fern, Blue bull, Barking deer, Mango, Wolf.

Answer

The term flora relates to all plant life and the term fauna represents all animal life.

Flora: Arjun, Teak, Fern, Mango, Sal

Fauna: Cheetal, Leopard, Blue bull, Barking deer, Wolf.

32. What is the difference between ‘flora’ and ‘fauna’?

Answer

Flora refers to the plant life found in a particular region. It is the naturally occurring or the indigenous native plant life.

The term fauna represents all the animal species found in a particular region at a particular time. These are the naturally occurring animal species of a particular area.

33. What is meant by ‘Species’ ? Give any five examples of species.

Answer

Species are often defined as a group of individuals with similar characteristics, where they can interbreed to produce fertile offsprings.

Examples:

  • Alpaca – Vicugna pacos.
  • Anole lizard – Anolis carolinensis.
  • Armadillo – Dasypus novemcinctus.
  • Bushbaby – Otolemur garnettii.
  • Cat – Felis catus.
  • Chicken – Gallus gallus

34. What’s do you understand by ‘endemic species’? Name two plant species and two animal species endemic to the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve area.

Answer

Endemic species are those species of plants and animals which are found exclusively in a particular area.

Two endemic plant species found in the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve area are: Acacia nilotica and Anogeissus latifolia.

Two endemic animal species found in the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve area are: Chinkara and nilgai.

35. Name two man-made causes of deforestation and two natural causes of deforestation.

Answer

Man-made causes of deforestation are:

  • Over expansion of population
  • Construction of industries and factories by cutting down forest

Natural causes of deforestation are:

  • Forest fire
  • Natural calamities like floods and draughts

36. What is a Wildlife Sanctuary? Name any two Wildlife sanctuaries in India. Where are these Sanctuaries located?

Answer

A wildlife sanctuary is an area where animal habitats and their surroundings are protected from any sort of disturbance. The capturing, killing and poaching of animals is strictly prohibited in these regions.

They aim at providing a comfortable living to the animals. India has beautiful wildlife sanctuaries, with dense forests, large rivers, high and beautiful mountains.

Few wildlife sanctuaries located in India are:

  • Periyar wildlife sanctuaries in Kerala
  • Govind wildlife sanctuaries in Uttarakhand
  • Gir National Park and wildlife sanctuaries in Gujarat

37. Name any two Bird Sanctuaries in India. Where are these located?

Answer

Bird sanctuaries in India:

  • Bharatpur bird sanctuary in Rajasthan
  • Sultanpur bird sanctuary in Haryana

38. What is the difference between a Biosphere Reserve & a Wildlife Sanctuary?

Answer

Biosphere reserve

Wildlife Sanctuary

An area constructed for the conservation of biodiversity is called the biosphere.

An area where the animals are protected and preserved is called wildlife sanctuary.

The adequate habitat and protection are provided for each and every species residing there.

Several life forms of flora and fauna are protected from hunting and conservation is done.

Example: Niligir biosphere

Example: Gir wildlife sanctuary

39. State the difference between Wildlife Sanctuary and Zoo.

Answer

Wildlife Sanctuary

Zoo

An area where the animals are protected and preserved is called wildlife sanctuary.

Animals are kept in artificially constructed facilities for public exhibition.

Several life forms of flora and fauna are protected from hunting and conservation is done.

It is an artificial habitat and the animals may or may not adapt to the new conditions.

40. What is a National Park? Name any two National Parks of India. Where are these National Park located?

Answer

National parks are areas that aim to protect the natural environment. In a national park, the landscapes and its flora and fauna are present in their natural state.

National parks located in India are:

  • Bandipur National Park in Karnataka
  • Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh

41. What are the differences between a Wildlife Sanctuary and a National Park?

Answer

Wildlife sanctuary

National Park

An area where the animals are protected and preserved is called wildlife sanctuary.

It can include flora, fauna, or any other objects of historical significance.

There are no fixed boundaries

Boundaries are fixed and identified.

Example: Gir wildlife sanctuary

Example: Jim Corbett National park

42. What do the rock painting found in rock shelters of Satpura National Park depict?

Answer

The objects of historical importance called Rock Shelters are found inside the Satpura National Park. This rock shelter is the evidence of prehistoric human life in the Jungle they give us an idea of the life of the primitive people who live in this area long ago. A total of 55 Rock Shelters have been identified in this area

43. What is ‘Project Tiger’? What was the aim of these projects?

Answer

Project tiger is the conservation of tiger launched by the government of India in 1973. It aims at conserving the Bengal tigers and conserving this is the biological and national heritage of our country.

44. Why even protected forests are not safe for wild animals?

Answer

The protected forests are not safe for wild animals as they hunters in the neighboring areas, come in sources of resources like food, water, and other raw materials. By this hunting process some of the animals are killed and now are in the verge of extinction.

45. What is meant by extinct species? Name any two extinct animals?

Answer

The species of animals or plants that no longer exist are called Extinct species.

Example: Caribbean monk seal, Great Auk, Passenger pigeon.

46. What is meant by endangered species? Name any two endangered animals?

Answer

The species which are on the verge of extinction are called as Endangered species.

Example: Bengal Tiger, Blue Whale, etc.

47. Different between ‘endangered species’ and extinct species.

Answer

The species which are on the verge of extinction are called as Endangered species.

Example: Bengal Tiger, Blue Whale, etc.

The species of animals or plants that no longer exist are called Extinct species.

Example: Caribbean monk seal, Great Auk, Passenger pigeon.

48. By taking the example of snakes, explain how by killing small animals, we are actually harming ourselves.

Answer

The killing of small animals disturb the life cycle and food chain. For example if we kill snakes, rodents that are eaten by snakes will increase in number and destroy the crop at the mass level. In another case, if we kill frogs then the number of insects that destroy our crops and are eaten by frogs will again damage our crops in such a way the food chain is disturbing and our food will destroy.

49. What is Red Data Book?

Answer

Red data book is basically a sourcebook that has an international list of all plant and animal species that are endangered, that is, on the verge of extinction. The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural resources (IUCN) maintains the books and adds/ removes the names of the species by conducting a comprehensive survey.

50. State one advantage of maintaining the Red Data Book.

Answer

The advantage of maintaining the Red Data Book is that it contains information regarding the endangered species of flora and fauna. By knowing this data it helps the agencies in conserving and giving protection to these species. The track record of all the organisms is mentioned and helps in protecting the plant and animal life forms.


Here, we learn that these species also have a record book called red data book where the details about the endangered species are mentioned and which helps us to preserve these species.

Also, visit Lakhmir Singh Solutions for Class 8 Science to get complete solutions for all chapters.

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