Lakhmir Singh Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 7 Conservation of Plants and Animals are provided here in PDF for free download. Plants and animals are part and parcel of our life. We know that without them, human life would not exist. However, we humans are exploiting these plants and animals. This chapter teaches us their importance and the ways to conserve these life forms. Humans have created various wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, and bio reserves to preserve them. Besides, in this chapter, we will learn about various extinct species and endangered species.
Access Lakhmir Singh Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 7 Conservation of Plants and Animals
Very Short Answer Type Questions
1. (a) Which gas in the atmosphere is used by trees and plants in photosynthesis?
(b) Which gas in the atmosphere traps the heat rays reflected by the earth?
(a) Carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere is used by trees and plants in the process of photosynthesis.
(b) Carbon monoxide gas in the atmosphere traps the heat rays reflected by the earth.
2. Write one word for: Variety of plants, animals, and microorganisms found in an area.
Biodiversity is the one word given for a variety of plants, animals, and microorganisms found in an area.
3. What name is given to that part of the earth in which living organisms exist (or which supports life)?
The part of the earth in which all living organisms exist (or which supports life) is the biosphere.
4. What are the three types of protected areas which have been earmarked for the conservation of forest and wildlife?
Wildlife sanctuaries, National parks and Biosphere are the three types of protected areas which have been earmarked for the conservation of forests and wildlife.
5. Name one Wildlife Sanctuary and one National park which is contained in Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve.
Bori Sanctuary, Panchmarhi Sanctuary and Satpura National Park are located in Panchmari Biosphere Reserve.
6. Name any five threatened wild animals that are protected and preserved in our wildlife Sanctuaries.
Tiger, Lion, Leopard, Indian rhinoceros, and Indian monkeys are the threatened wild animals that are protected and preserved in our wildlife sanctuaries.
7. For what purpose are National Parks in our country established?
The purpose of National parks in our country is to conserve and protect endangered species. To maintain the ecological balance and also to give shelter to the endemic species.
8. Name the first Reserve Forest of India.
The first reserve forest in India is Satpura National Park.
9. Name the objects of historical significance found in Satpura National Park.
The objects of historical significance found in Satpura National Park are called rock shelters. These rock shelters are evidence of prehistoric human life in this jungle. Approximately 55 rock shelters have been identified in this park.
10. Name two animals that have vanished from Satpura National Park and two animals which are still found there.
Two animals that have vanished from Satpura National Park are White buffalo and Swamp deer. Two animals that are still found in Satpura National Park are Leopard and Tiger.
11. What name is given to those species
(a) that are on the verge of vanishing from earth?
(b) that have died out completely?
(a) Species that are on the verge of vanishing from the earth are called endangered species.
(b) Species that have died out completely are called extinct species.
12. Name the publication which contains a record of all the endangered species (plants and animals, etc).
The publication which contains a record of all the endangered species (plants and animals, etc) is the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
13. Name any five endangered species of animals listed in the Red Data Book of India.
Five endangered species of animals listed in the Red Data Book of India are
- Asiatic lion
- Bengal tiger
- Blue whale
- Central Kashmir Vole
14. What is the answer to deforestation?
The answer to deforestation is afforestation. It means planting trees in an area where there was no previous tree cover. The other answer can be reforestation. It implies the re-establishment of forests either naturally or artificially.
15. Name the various old paper products which can be recycled.
Various old paper products that can be recycled are:
- Paper towels and napkins
- Greeting cards
- Old gift tags
16. How many full-grown trees are needed to make 1 tonne of paper?
Twenty-five full-grown trees are needed to make one tonne of paper.
17. State one way in which we can reuse paper.
Old newspapers can be used as paper bags to carry lightweight things. It can also be used to pack vegetables and store them in the refrigerator.
18. Fill in the following blanks with suitable words
(a) Deforestation increases the level of___________in the atmosphere.
(b) Species found only in a particular area are known ___________ species.
(c) A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat is called___________
(d) Satpura National Park is a part of___________ Biosphere Reserve.
(e) Rd Data Book contains a record of___________ species.
(f) Migratory birds fly to faraway places because of___________ changes.
(g) In reforestation, the planted trees should be of the same___________ Which were cut down in that forest.
(h) Paper can be recycled___________ to___________times.
(a) Deforestation increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
(b) Species found only in a particular area are known as endemic species.
(c) A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat is called a wildlife sanctuary.
(d) Satpura National Park is a part of the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve.
(e) Rd Data Book contains a record of endangered species.
(f) Migratory birds fly to faraway places because of climatic changes.
(g) In reforestation, the planted trees should be of the same species which were cut down in that forest.
(h) Paper can be recycled five to seven times
Short Answer Type Questions
19. What is meant by deforestation? What are the causes of deforestation?
Removal of trees and plant life from a particular area for the construction of industries, agriculture, and other purposes is termed as deforestation. The causes of deforestation are as follows:
- Procuring land for cultivation
- Building houses and factories
- Making furniture or using wood as fuel
- Natural causes such as forest fire and severe drought can also cause deforestation
20. What are the consequences of deforestation?
The consequences of deforestation are:
- Deforestation increases the temperature and pollution levels on the earth
- It increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
- It also reduces the level of groundwater
21. What is desertification? Name one human activity which may lead to desertification.
Desertification is a process of degradation of the land. Desertification is the degradation process by which a fertile land changes itself into a desert by losing its flora and fauna, this can be caused by drought, deforestation, climate change, human activities, or improper agriculture. Overgrazing, climatic change and deforestation can lead to desertification.
22. Explain how deforestation makes the soil infertile leading to desertification.
The soil particles are held together in a place by the roots of the plants, trees, and other vegetation. In the event of water flow or a high-speed wind over the top layer of the soil, the soil particles get removed easily as there are no plants to hold them in place. Thus, Soil erosion is increased by deforestation activities. Soil loses fertility and loses humus. Hence, fertile land, fit for agriculture, turns into a desert.
23. What is global warming? Name the gas responsible for causing global warming.
Global warming is a gradual increase in the earth’s temperature, generally due to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants. The gases responsible for causing global warming are carbon dioxide, methane carbon monoxide.
24. How does deforestation reduce rainfall on the one hand and lead to floods on the other?
Deforestation leads to reduced rainfall because it leads to a reduction in the natural recycling of moisture from the soils. This recycling takes place through vegetation and returns back in the form of rainfall.
Deforestation also leads to floods. This is because the water-holding capacity of the soil is dependent on the number of trees. As the number of tresses reduces, the soil structure changes and the soil particles that are held firmly get disturbed. When there is heavy rainfall, the rainwater does not seep down into the ground and is not absorbed by the trees. Hence, it leads to flooding.
25. Define the term ‘biosphere’.
The biosphere is defined as the global ecological system consisting of all living organisms, and these are protected from human intervention. These help in the protection of endangered species.
(i) Biodiversity is the variation among living organisms from different sources, including terrestrial, marine and desert ecosystems, and the ecological complexes of which they are a part.
(ii) An ecosystem is a group or community composed of living and non-living things and their interactions with each other. They can be natural as well as artificial. Every ecosystem has two components, namely, biotic components and abiotic components.
27. What will happen if the natural habitat of a wild animal is destroyed?
Plant life forms an integral part of the ecosystem, and these plants form the natural habitat of various animals in that ecosystem. All the basic necessities for an animal, like food, water, shelter, and protection, are provided by the habitat in which the animal lives-in disturbing the habitat of the animal forces it to move to another place in search of food, water, shelter and protection. The animal, in due course, may get killed by other animals. Destroying the nature will ultimately threaten the existence of animals in that particular ecosystem and may lead to their extinction.
28. What is the purpose of establishing several Biosphere Reserve, Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks in India?
The purpose of establishing several Biosphere Reserve, Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks in India is to conserve and protect endangered species. To maintain the ecological balance and also to give shelter to the endemic species.
29. State the role of the Biosphere Reserve.
Biosphere reserves are areas that are protected from human intervention. These areas help in the conservation of endangered species. Each biosphere reserve is supposed to fulfil three harmonizing functions:
Conservation function: To conserve genetic resources, species, ecosystems, and landscapes
Development function: To promote sustainable human development and economic
Logistic support function: To provide support for research and analyzing the issues of conservation and sustainable development.
30. What is meant by the ‘flora’ and ‘fauna’ of an area? Give two examples of flora and two examples of the fauna of the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve.
Flora is a collective term for a group of plant life found in a particular region. The whole plant kingdom is represented by this name. Fauna represents the animal life indigenous to a region. In a nutshell, the term flora relates to all plant life, and the term fauna represents all animal life. Let us dive deeper into these terms, exploring their origins and etymologies.
Flora in Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve: Mango and Silver ferns
Fauna in Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve: Wild boar and Tiger
31. What is meant by the ‘flora’ and ‘fauna’, and which belongs to the ‘flora of the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve? Sal, Arjun, Cheetal, Teak, Leopard, Fern, Blue bull, Barking deer, Mango, Wolf.
The term flora relates to all plant life, and the term fauna represents all animal life.
Flora: Arjun, Teak, Fern, Mango, Sal
Fauna: Cheetal, Leopard, Blue bull, Barking deer, Wolf.
32. What is the difference between ‘flora’ and ‘fauna’?
Flora refers to the plant life found in a particular region. It is naturally occurring or the indigenous native plant life.
The term fauna represents all the animal species found in a particular region at a particular time. These are the naturally occurring animal species of a particular area.
33. What is meant by ‘Species’? Give any five examples of species.
Species are often defined as a group of individuals with similar characteristics, where they can interbreed to produce fertile offsprings.
- Alpaca – Vicugna pacos.
- Anole lizard – Anolis carolinensis.
- Armadillo – Dasypus novemcinctus.
- Bushbaby – Otolemur garnettii.
- Cat – Felis catus.
- Chicken – Gallus gallus
34. What do you understand by ‘endemic species’? Name two plant species and two animal species endemic to the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve area.
Endemic species are those species of plants and animals which are found exclusively in a particular area.
Two endemic plant species found in the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve area are: Acacia nilotica and Anogeissus latifolia.
Two endemic animal species found in the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve area are: Chinkara and nilgai.
35. Name two man-made causes of deforestation and two natural causes of deforestation.
Man-made causes of deforestation are:
- Over expansion of population
- Construction of industries and factories by cutting down the forest
Natural causes of deforestation are:
- Forest fire
- Natural calamities like floods and draughts
36. What is a Wildlife Sanctuary? Name any two Wildlife sanctuaries in India. Where are these Sanctuaries located?
A wildlife sanctuary is an area where animal habitats and their surroundings are protected from any sort of disturbance. The capturing, killing and poaching of animals are strictly prohibited in these regions.
They aim to provide a comfortable living to the animals. India has beautiful wildlife sanctuaries with dense forests, large rivers, and high and beautiful mountains.
A few wildlife sanctuaries located in India are:
- Periyar wildlife sanctuaries in Kerala
- Govind wildlife sanctuaries in Uttarakhand
- Gir National Park and wildlife sanctuaries in Gujarat
37. Name any two Bird Sanctuaries in India. Where are these located?
Bird sanctuaries in India:
- Bharatpur bird sanctuary in Rajasthan
- Sultanpur bird sanctuary in Haryana
38. What is the difference between a Biosphere Reserve & a Wildlife Sanctuary?
|Biosphere reserve||Wildlife Sanctuary|
|An area constructed for the conservation of biodiversity is called the biosphere.||An area where the animals are protected and preserved is called a wildlife sanctuary.|
|An adequate habitat and protection are provided for each and every species residing there.||Several life forms of flora and fauna are protected from hunting, and conservation is done.|
|Example: Niligir biosphere||Example: Gir wildlife sanctuary|
39. State the difference between Wildlife Sanctuary and Zoo.
|An area where the animals are protected and preserved is called a wildlife sanctuary.||Animals are kept in artificially constructed facilities for public exhibition.|
|Several life forms of flora and fauna are protected from hunting, and conservation is done.||It is an artificial habitat, and the animals may or may not adapt to the new conditions.|
40. What is a National Park? Name any two National Parks of India. Where are these National Parks located?
National parks are areas that aim to protect the natural environment. In a national park, the landscapes and its flora and fauna are present in their natural state.
National parks located in India are:
- Bandipur National Park in Karnataka
- Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh
41. What are the differences between a Wildlife Sanctuary and a National Park?
|Wildlife sanctuary||National Park|
|An area where the animals are protected and preserved is called a wildlife sanctuary.||It can include flora, fauna, or any other objects of historical significance.|
|There are no fixed boundaries||Boundaries are fixed and identified.|
|Example: Gir wildlife sanctuary||Example: Jim Corbett National park|
42. What do the rock painting found in rock shelters of Satpura National Park depict?
The objects of historical importance, called Rock Shelters, are found inside the Satpura National Park. This rock shelter is evidence of prehistoric human life in the Jungle; they give us an idea of the life of the primitive people who live in this area long ago. A total of 55 Rock Shelters have been identified in this area
43. What is ‘Project Tiger’? What was the aim of these projects?
Project Tiger is the conservation of tigers launched by the government of India in 1973. It aims at conserving the Bengal tigers and conserving the biological and national heritage of our country.
44. Why even protected forests are not safe for wild animals?
The protected forests are not safe for wild animals as the hunters in the neighbouring areas come in sources of resources like food, water, and other raw materials. Through this hunting process, some of the animals are killed and are now on the verge of extinction.
45. What is meant by extinct species? Name any two extinct animals.
The species of animals or plants that no longer exist are called Extinct species.
Example: Caribbean monk seal, Great Auk, Passenger pigeon.
46. What is meant by endangered species? Name any two endangered animals.
The species which are on the verge of extinction is called as Endangered species.
Example: Bengal Tiger, Blue Whale, etc.
47. Different between ‘endangered species’ and extinct species.
The species which are on the verge of extinction are called as Endangered species.
Example: Bengal Tiger, Blue Whale, etc.
The species of animals or plants that no longer exist are called Extinct species.
Example: Caribbean monk seal, Great Auk, Passenger pigeon.
48. By taking the example of snakes, explain how by killing small animals, we are actually harming ourselves.
The killing of small animals disturbs the life cycle and food chain. For example, if we kill snakes, rodents that are eaten by snakes will increase in number and destroy the crop at the mass level. In another case, if we kill frogs, then the number of insects that destroy our crops and are eaten by frogs will again damage our crops in such a way the food chain is disturbed, and our food will destroy.
49. What is Red Data Book?
The red data book is basically a sourcebook that has an international list of all plant and animal species that are endangered, that is, on the verge of extinction. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and Natural Resources maintains the books and adds/removes the names of the species by conducting a comprehensive survey.
50. State one advantage of maintaining the Red Data Book.
The advantage of maintaining the Red Data Book is that it contains information regarding the endangered species of flora and fauna. Knowing this data helps the agencies in conserving and giving protection to these species. The track record of all the organisms is mentioned and helps in protecting the plant and animal life forms.
Here, we learnt that these species also have a record book called the Red Data book where the details about the endangered species are mentioned and which helps us to preserve these species.
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