 # Division Of A Line Segment

Before knowing about the division of a Line segment, let us know what a line and line segment means,

Line and line segment

A line is a collection of points along a straight path which extends to both the directions without endpoints. AB is a line which doesn’t have any ending. A line segment is a part of a line between two endpoints.

PQ is a line segment having P and Q as endpoints on the line AB.

Division of a line segment

A line segment can be divided into ‘n’ equal parts, where ‘n’ is any natural number.

For example; a line segment of length 10 cm is divided into two equal parts by using a ruler as,

• Mark a point 5 cm away from one end.
• 10 cm is divided into two 5 cm line segments.

Similarly, a line segment of length 15 cm can be divided in the ratio 2:1 as,

• AB is the line segment of length 15 cm and C divides the line in the ratio 2:1.
• Let CB = x, then AC = 2x
• AC + CB = 2x + x = 15, x = 5
• AC = 10 cm and CB = 5 cm.
• Mark point C, 10 cm away from A Now, what if we cannot measure the lengths precisely? We will not be able to mark the point correctly.

There is a better way to mark point while dividing a line in a given ratio, which explained as follows.

Consider a line $\overleftrightarrow{PQ}$ . We have to divide $\overleftrightarrow{PQ}$ in a ratio m:n, where m and n are positive integers.

Let m = 3 and n = 1. So, we are dividing the line $\overleftrightarrow{PQ}$ in the ratio 3 : 1.

Steps of construction

• Draw $\overleftrightarrow{PQ}$ a ray PX which makes acute angle with $\overleftrightarrow{PQ}$
• Now, locate 4(m + n = 3 + 1) points A,B,C and D such that PA = AB = BC = CD using compass.
• Join Q and D using ruler.
• Draw a line through the point C (m = 3,C is the third point from P) which should be parallel to $\overleftrightarrow{QD}$ by making an equal angle to ∠PDQ intersect the line PQ at R. (Refer figure.)
• Now, R is the point on $\overleftrightarrow{PQ}$ ⃡which divides $\overleftrightarrow{PQ}$  in the ratio 3:1. Figure 1-Division of a line segment

Since CR is parallel to DQ;

By basic proportionality theorem,

$\frac {PR}{RQ}$ = $\frac {PC}{CD}$

By construction, $\frac {PC}{CD}$  = $\frac {3}{1}$

Therefore,

$\frac {PR}{RQ}$  = $\frac {3}{1}$<

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