Madhya Pradesh Board Question Paper for Class 10th Social Science 2018 In PDF

MP Board (MPBSE) Question Paper 2018 Class 10th Social Science For English Medium with Solutions – Free Download

MP Board Class 10 Social Science 2018 question papers solutions in pdf help students to assess their preparation level. By solving the previous year question papers students can understand the difficulty level, question paper pattern, marking scheme, etc. It is advised to solve the previous year papers before the exam so that students can score good marks in their final exam. The previous year papers also give an overall idea on which topic to focus more and carry more weightage.

The solutions will also help students to clear their doubts if they get stuck while solving the question papers. All the questions are answered accurately by subject experts using easy to understand language. Practising the previous year question papers regularly will improve their time management skills and also work on their weak points. By doing, so they can avoid the mistakes while solving the exam paper.

MP‌ ‌Board‌ ‌Class‌ ‌10‌ ‌Social‌ ‌Science‌ ‌Question‌ ‌Paper‌ ‌2018‌ ‌with‌ Answers‌ ‌–‌ ‌Free‌ ‌Download‌

Download‌ ‌MP‌ ‌Board‌ Class 10 ‌2018 ‌Social‌ ‌Science‌ ‌Question‌ ‌Paper‌


Download‌ ‌MP‌ ‌Board‌ Class 10 ‌2018 Social‌ ‌Science‌ ‌Solutions

MP‌ ‌Board‌ ‌Class‌ ‌10‌ ‌Social‌ ‌Science‌ ‌Question‌ ‌Paper‌ ‌With‌ ‌Solution‌ ‌2018

 

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1. Choose and write the correct option:

A) Madhya Pradesh ranks first in the production of which of the following minerals

i) Iron

ii) Mica

iii) Gold

iv) Diamond

Answer: iv) Diamond

B) The revolution in Kanpur was led by

i) Rani Lakshmi Bai

ii) Tatya Tope

iii) Nana Saheb

iii) Bahadur Shah

Answer: iii) Nana Saheb

C) How many articles are there in the Constitution of India?

i) 395

ii) 345

iii) 370

iv) 320

Answer: i) 395

D) Employment under National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme is made available for

i) 100 days

ii) 150 days

iii) 200

iv) One year

Answer: i) 100 days

E) The Agmark is a mark safety for

i) Jewellery

ii) Agricultural Product

iii) Woollen Clothes

iv) Electronic Equipments

Answer: ii) Agricultural Product

2. Fill in the blanks:

A) Forest Fire Control Project is working in association with……

B) Many Indian States were annexed to the British Empire as a result of Dalhousie______ policy.

C) The newly drafted Indian Constitution was adopted by the constituent assembly on ……

D) Leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha is called ……

E) Education and Health are the part of ……. Infrastructure.

Answer A: Forest Fire Control Project is working in association with United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

Answer B: Many Indian States were annexed to the British Empire as a result of Dalhousie Doctrine of Lapse policy.

Answer C: The newly drafted Indian Constitution was adopted by the constituent assembly on 26 November 1949.

Answer D: Leader of the majority party in Lok Sabha is called the Prime Minister.

Answer E: Education and Health are the part of Critical Infrastructure.

3. Write True or False:

A) Consumer Protection Act was implemented in 1986.

B) Tertiary sector of the economy is also called the service sector.

C) Tenure of Panchayat is 7 years.

D) Loss caused by disaster can be minimized by disaster management.

E) Congress was split in the Surat Session.

Answer A: True

Answer B: True

Answer C: False

Answer D: True

Answer E: True

4. Match the following:

i) Telecasting the sports activities

a) 1876

ii) Integrated guided Missile Plan

b) of individuals and governments

iii) Woollen Cloth Industry

c) A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

iv) R.B.I.

d) D.D. Sports Channel

v) Mixed Economy

e) Bank of Banks

Answer:

i) Telecasting the sports activities

d) D.D. Sports Channel

ii) Integrated guided Missile Plan

c) A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

iii) Woollen Cloth Industry

a) 1876

iv) R.B.I.

e) Bank of Banks

v) Mixed Economy

b) of individuals and governments

5. Write answer in one word/sentence:

A) What is standardised by Hallmark?

B) Name the sector of economy which co-operates in the execution of agriculture and industry.

C) When were the banks nationalised in India?

D) What is a drug and intoxicating?

E) What do you understand about unemployment?

Answer A: BIS Hallmark certifies the purity of gold jewellery. Ecomark is an ecolabel for various products issued by the Bureau of Indian Standards.

Answer B: Tertiary Sector

Answer C: July 19, 1969

Answer D: Intoxication is highly dependent on the type and dose of drug and is influenced by an individual’s level of tolerance and other factors.

Answer E: Unemployment is a phenomenon that occurs when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work.

6. What is meant by soil erosion?

OR

What do you mean by the Green Revolution?

Answer: Soil erosion is the natural process in which the topsoil of a field is carried away by physical sources such as wind and water. It results in a continuous loss of topsoil, ecological degradation, soil collapse, etc.

Answer: The Green Revolution involved the production of high yielding varieties (often abbreviated to HYV) of seeds, resulting in an increase in agricultural production to combat food shortage and increase the revenue of the agricultural sector.

7. What was the policy adopted by Lord Curzon for governance?

OR

What was the immediate cause of the freedom struggle of 1857?

Answer: Lord Curzon had many objectives as part of his policy, such as the spread of

  • Communalism
  • Division of Bengal
  • Division of Indian National Congress

Answer: The immediate cause of the revolt of 1857 was the introduction of the Enfield Rifle.

It is believed that the cartridge of the Enfield Rifle had to be bitten off before use. But it’s cartridge was made up of pork and beef. The Hindus could not eat a sacred animal like a cow and the Muslims could not eat pork as they thought it to be impure. So the introduction of the Enfield Rifle had upset the feelings of the Hindus and Muslims which were a majority of the Indian population, and they were against it.

8. During which period of time is national income calculated?

OR

Who is paid an unemployment allowance?

Answer: National income has a huge effect on the economy during budget season. April 1st to March 31st is the specific time period in which the national income is calculated.

Answer: An allowance of money paid, usually weekly, to an unemployed worker by a state or federal agency or by the worker’s labour union or former employer during all or part of the period of unemployment.

9. Explain the types of infrastructure.

OR

What is the secondary sector of the economy? Explain with an example.

Answer: The types of infrastructure are:

  • Economic Infrastructure: This infrastructure is directly linked with the economic development of a country or an organization. This includes the basic amenities and services that directly influence and benefits the production process. Few examples of economic infrastructure are power, transportation, irrigation, communication, etc.
  • Social Infrastructure: This infrastructure is the basic services that improve individual productivity and achieve social objectives. Social Infrastructure contributes indirectly to the country’s economic development. For instance, the education sector doesn’t contribute directly to the economic development of a country. However, it helps indirectly by providing high-quality education to the students and therefore producing doctors, scientists, engineers, and technologists. Few examples of social infrastructure are water supply, sanitation, health, housing, etc

Answer: In the ‘Secondary Sector’, the natural products are changed into several useful forms through manufacturing. For example: making sugar from sugarcane or making cement from limestone and then constructing a house. All the industries of this type are kept in the secondary sector.

10. State any 2 types of consumer exploitation.

OR

What is Monopoly?

Answer: 2 types of consumer exploitation are:

  • Higher commodity prices beyond recommended costs,
  • Risk products, adulteration and sub-standard commodities.

Answer: Monopoly is a type of imperfect competition in which a company and its product dominate the sector or industry. This situation arises when there is no competitor in the market for the same product.

11. Differentiate any three white and yellow revolution.

OR

Differentiate any three Rabi and Kharif crops.

Answer: White Revolution and Yellow Revolution

White Revolution

Yellow Revolution

This revolution is related with animal rearing and milk production

It is related with edible oil and oil seeds

Its main aim is to increase milk production by dairy development programmes.

The strategy of research and development in the field of soil, seed and edible oil is yellow revolution

Interbreeding of local cows is done at a foreign level, by the government to improve the breed of cows.

Various efforts have been made to increase oil seed production through technology mission of 1987-88 by the government of India, in which oil seed production was increased at national, state and local level.

Answer: Rabi and Kharif crops

Kharif Crop

Rabi Crop

Sowing Season

Kharif crops are sown early-May – usually at the beginning of the first monsoon rains

Rabi crops are sown around mid-November – preferably after the monsoon rains

Also known as

Monsoon crops/ Autumn Crops

Winter crops

Rainfall Pattern

Crops are drastically affected – too little or too much rainfall can lay waste to the efforts

Generally not affected (however, rain in winter can potentially spoil rabi crops)

Essential Factors

Requires hot weather and a large amount of water to grow.

Requires warm climate for seed germination and cold climate to grow.

Harvesting Months

Usually between October and November (Please note – exact harvesting season varies according to the crops and region)

Generally between April and May (please note – exact harvesting season varies according to the crops and region)

Examples

Cotton, groundnut, maize and rice are examples of Kharif crops.

Barley, gram, peas and wheat are examples of Rabi crops.

Term Origins/ Etymology

“Kharif” translates to “autumn season” in Arabic

“Rabi” translates to “spring season” in Arabic

12. What is the Social Forestry Scheme?

OR

Rain water harvesting is necessary. Why?

Answer: Social forestry refers to the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development. The term was first used in India in 1976 by the National Commission on Agriculture, Government of India.

Social forestry helps in soil conservation through the following ways.

  • Tree roots help in preventing soil erosion by holding the soil in its place.
  • Trees reduce soil erosion by reducing the impact of raindrops on the barren surface.
  • Decaying leaves makes the soil richer by forming an organic layer on top and reducing the soil erosion.
  • It also helps in increasing the capacity of soil in storing water.

Answer: Rainwater harvesting is a sustainable process that helps in preserving water for future needs. Water scarcity is a major concern in today’s scenario. The process of rainwater harvesting is a good way to conserve water.

The advantages of rainwater harvesting are:

  • It is cost-effective
  • Conserves water
  • A source of water for landscape irrigation
  • It is a simple method and easy to practice.
  • It reduces soil erosion and pollution of water bodies due to fertilizers and pesticides.

13. Write any three objectives of establishment of Congress.

OR

Write a short note on anyone of the following:

i) TatyaTope

ii) Nana Saheb

Answer: Three objectives of establishment of Congress are:

  • The first and foremost major objectives of INC was to promote the nation-building process in India. It was to create a national identity of being an Indian among the people and to promote National Unity. This was important because colonial administrators did not consider India as a nation, but just a geographical expression.
  • To provide for an all India political platform. It was to allow political workers from all over the country to educate and mobilize masses under a common all India political organization.
  • To promote political consciousness and political awakening among the educated citizens and then to all the sections of the society.

Answer i: TatyaTope – Tantia Tope was a general in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and one of its notable leaders. He was born as Ramachandra Panduranga to a Marathi Deshastha Brahmin family and took on the title Tope, meaning commanding officer. It is believed that he had escaped the British (with assistance from Raja Man Singh of Narwar) and someone else disguised as him was hanged in his place. It is also believed that he spent the last years of his life in Navsari (1814 – 18 April 1859). A personal adherent of Nana Sahib of Bithur, he progressed with the Gwalior contingent after the British reoccupied Kanpur and forced General Windham to retreat from the city. Later on, he came to the relief of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi and with her seized the city of Gwalior. However, he was defeated by General Napier’s British Indian troops at Ranod and after a further defeat at Sikar abandoned the campaign. He was executed by the British Government at Shivpuri on 18 April 1859.

Answer ii: Nana Saheb – Nana Sahib (19 May 1824 – 1859), born as Dhondu Pant, was an Indian Peshwa of Maratha empire, aristocrat and fighter, who led the rebellion in Cawnpore (Kanpur) during the 1857 uprising. As the adopted son of the exiled Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao II, Nana Sahib believed that he was entitled to a pension from the English East India Company, but the underlying contractual issues are rather murky. The Company’s refusal to continue the pension after his father’s death, as well as what he perceived as high-handed policies, compelled him to revolt and seek independence from company rule in India. He forced the British garrison in Kanpur to surrender, then executed the survivors, gaining control of Cawnpore for a few days. He later disappeared, after his forces were defeated by a British force that recaptured Cawnpore. He was led to the Nepal Hills in 1859, where he is thought to have died.

14. Write any three reasons of failure for the freedom struggle, 1857.

OR

Why did the Europeans staying in India protest against the llbert Bill?

Answer: The revolt was eventually not successful in ousting the British from the country because of several factors.

  • The sepoys lacked one clear leader; there were several. They also did not have a coherent plan by which the foreigners would be routed.
  • Indian rulers who aided the revolt did not envision any plan for the country after the British were defeated.
  • Majorly northern India was affected by this revolt. The three presidencies of Bengal, Bombay and Madras remained mostly unaffected. The Sikh soldiers also did not take part in the rebellion.

Answer: As of 1883, when the Ilbert Bill was introduced, the Europeans could not be tried in court by Indian native judges.

Lord Ripon realised that this provision needed to be changed. So, the original Ilbert Bill allowed equal treatment for Europeans i.e. Indian judges could preside over cases involving Europeans.

This led to organised lobbying and opposition by all Europeans in India. And an amendment was brought as a compromise. As per amendment- Indian judges could preside over cases involving Europeans but the Europeans got right to demand trial by jury, where at least half of the jury would be White Europeans.

This completely defeated the purpose of the original Ilbert Bill. Though the educated Indians had also protested against the amendments, but they realised that to pressurise the government, All India Organisation and more coordination amongst Indians to press for equal treatment. This is why Ilbert Bill controversy is seen as an important precursor to the formation of the INC.

15. Explain any four types of pollution.

OR

Why is the Iron and Steel Industry called Basic Industry?

Answer: Four types of pollution are:

  1. Air Pollution – Air pollution refers to the release of harmful contaminants (chemicals, toxic gases, particulates, biological molecules, etc.) into the earth’s atmosphere. These contaminants are quite detrimental and in some cases, pose serious health issues.
  2. Water Pollution – Water pollution is said to occur when toxic pollutants and particulate matter are introduced into water bodies such as lakes, rivers and seas. These contaminants are generally introduced by human activities like improper sewage treatment and oil spills. However, even natural processes such as eutrophication can cause water pollution.
  3. Soil Pollution – Soil pollution, also called soil contamination, refers to the degradation of land due to the presence of chemicals or other man-made substances in the soil. The xenobiotic substances alter the natural composition of soil and affect it negatively. These can drastically impact life directly or indirectly.
  4. Noise Pollution – Noise pollution refers to the excessive amount of noise in the surrounding that disrupts the natural balance. Usually, it is man-made, though certain natural calamities like volcanoes can contribute to noise pollution.

Answer: Iron and steel industry is the backbone of modern civilisation. It provides industrial products, and thus, is known as the Basic Industry. Iron ore occurs in abundance in many parts of the world. It is estimated that 65% machines and utensils are made of steel. It is widely distributed in the world. That’s why it is known as the Basic Industry.

16. What is transport? Explain the means of transport shortly.

OR

What is Communication? Explain the means of communication shortly.

Answer: Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, land (rail and road), water, cable, pipeline and space.

The Major means of transport are of 3 types.

  • Land Transport – This Transport includes transportation through land and between cities and states through train also.
  • Air transport – Transportation thorough aeroplanes and helicopters.
  • Water transport – Transportation through ships and boats.

Answer: Communication is an act of passing on information from one place, person or group to another. Each part of a communication comprises at least one sender, a message and a recipient.

There are different styles of communication. Such as

  • Verbal Communication: This includes one to one interaction or over telephone, television, radio or other media support.
  • Non-Verbal Communication: This includes one’s body language, the way we dress up, our gestures and action. For example, the tone of our voice gives an indication of one’s mood or emotional state.
  • Communication through Writing: This includes emails, letters, social media, books, internet other media.
  • Visualizations: This includes communicating with the help of graphs and charts, logos, maps and other visualizations which help in communicating message.

17. What is Drought and Flood? Explain.

OR

Write an essay on Disaster Management.

Answer: The term ‘Drought’ in simple words is the absence of water for a long period of time, at a place where it is considered abnormal as compared to its usual conditions. The distribution of water on the earth’s surface is not even. Some places have lots of freshwater e.g. rivers, lakes, lagoons, ponds etc. and they are continuously replenished by rainfall and water from underground.

If a region that has had lots of rainfall, goes for a couple of weeks without rains, and people, animals and plants begin to experience a bit of dryness, it can be called a drought. Drought can be defined as a relatively long time when there is not enough water than there usually is, as a result of dry weather, to support human, animal and plant life. Droughts become an issue only when it begins to affect water supply for irrigation, municipal, industrial, energy, and ecosystem function. Severe droughts can have serious consequences.

A flood is an overflow of water on land. Sometimes a river might receive extra water, either from heavy rains or other natural disasters. When this happens, the water overflows from its normal path in the river bed and onto the dry land. This is called a flood. Flash floods happen quickly. Extreme flooding can also be caused by a tsunami or a large storm that will cause the sea to surge inland.

During a flood, people should move themselves and their most precious belongings to higher ground quickly. The process of leaving homes in search of a safe place is called evacuation. Floods occur at irregular intervals and vary in size, duration and the affected area.

Water naturally flows from high areas to low-lying areas. This means low-lying areas may flood quickly before it begins to get to the higher ground.

Answer: National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is the apex body to tackle disasters in India. It comes under the control of the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Apart from the above authority, there is the State Disaster Management Authority, with Chief Minister as the chairperson. The responsibility of disaster management in India is further tasked to the District Disaster Management Authority with the District Commissioner/District Collector/District Magistrate as the chairperson.The National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is an Indian specialized force that works on mitigating the disasters and carrying out rescue operations during natural and man-made disasters. NDRF has rescued lakhs of people in India from various disasters and has carried out lots of rescue operations from 2007.

18. What were the reasons of the conducting Civil Disobedience Movement?

OR

Name the newspaper published from Madhya Pradesh to arouse awareness for national awakening.

Answer: Reasons for launching Civil Disobedience Movement by the Congress:

The British Government in India had deprived the Indian people of their freedom. It had based itself on the exploitation of masses, The British Government had ruined India economically, politically, culturally and spiritually. The people of India believed it to be a crime against man and god to submit any longer to a rule that has caused irreparable harm to Indian economy and its social fabric. The Congress, therefore, declared the attainment of complete independence as its aim in the Congress Session held at Lahore and decided to launch Civil Disobedience Movement under the leadership of Gandhiji.

Answer: The newspapers like, “Dainik Bhaskar (Hindi), Patrika (Hindi), Central Chronicle (English), Nav Bharat(Hindi) and Nai Duniya (Hindi) are the newspapers published from Madhya Pradesh to arouse awareness for national awakening.

India’s newspaper industry is very old and it has been running since mid 18th century till now and first it was started by East India Company. The Indian media played a big role as the vehicle of the national awakening and in the nation’s struggle for freedom.

19. What is the Kashmir Problem? Describe.

OR

What were the effects of lndo-China war? Explain.

Answer: The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir region. The conflict started after the partition of India in 1947 as a dispute over the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir and escalated into three wars between India and Pakistan and several other armed skirmishes.

Both India and Pakistan claim the entirety of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. India controls approximately 55% of the land area of the region and 70% of its population, Pakistan controls approximately 30% of the land, while China controls the remaining 15%. India administers Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, Ladakh, and the Siachen Glacier. Pakistan administers Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. China administers the mostly uninhabited Shaksgam Valley, and the Aksai Chin region.

Answer: The Sino-Indian War, otherwise called the Indo-China War and Sino-Indian Outskirt Strife, was a war among China and India that happened in 1962. A contested Himalayan fringe was the fundamental guise for war, however different issues assumed a job. There had been a progression of brutal outskirt occurrences after the 1959 Tibetan uprising, when India had conceded refuge to the Dalai Lama. India started a Forward Strategy where it put stations along the fringe, including a few north of the McMahon Line, the eastern bit of the Line of Genuine Control declared by Chinese Head Zhou Enlai in 1959.

20. Describe the fundamental duties of the citizens of India.

OR

Explain the meaning of”Socialist and Secular”.

Answer: Fundamental duties of the citizens of India are:

  1. Abide by the Indian Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem
  2. Cherish and follow the noble ideals that inspired the national struggle for freedom
  3. Uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India
  4. Defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so
  5. Promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women
  6. Value and preserve the rich heritage of the country’s composite culture
  7. Protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures
  8. Develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform
  9. Safeguard public property and to abjure violence
  10. Strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement
  11. Provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years. This duty was added by the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002

Answer: Socialist – People have supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate the government of India.

Secular – Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion. But there is no official religion. Government treats all religious beliefs and practices with equal respect.

21. Give the meaning of the Economic system and write its characteristics.

OR

What is Globalisation? Discuss the problems created by globalisation.

Answer: An economic system is a mechanism with the help of which the government’s plan and allocate accessible services, resources, and commodities across the country. Economic systems manage elements of production, combining wealth, labour, physical resources, and business people. An economic system incorporates many companies, agencies, objects, models, as well as for deciding procedures.

Answer: Globalisation means integrating the Indian economy with the world economy. It is the outcome of the policies of liberalisation and privatisation. It attempts to establish links in such a way that the happenings in India can be influenced by events happening miles away.

It is an outcome of various policies that aim to transform the world towards greater interdependence and integration.

The problems created by globalisation are:

  • Benefits of Globalisation accrue more to developed countries as they are able to expand their markets in other countries.
  • It compromises the welfare of people belonging to developing countries.
  • Market-driven Globalisation increases the economic disparities among nations and people.

22. Show the following on the outline map of India.

i) Rann of Kuchchh

ii) Cherrapunji

iii) Hajeera-Jagdishpur gas pipeline

iv) Chhota Nagpur Plateau

v) VlShakhapama

OR

Draw the indicators (signs) for the following:

i) Drizzle

ii) Haze

iii) Fully clouds

iv) Calm

v) Strong Breeze

Answer: Activity to be done by yourself.

23. When was Quit India Movement started? Write its importance in history of Indian independence.

OR

Why was the Indian National Army set up and write about its contribution to the freedom struggle of India.

Answer: Mumbai’s Gowalia Tank Maidan also known as August Kranti Maidan is the place where the quit India movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi. He along with other leaders gathered here on August 8 and 9, 1942.

The outcome of the movement was that Congress was declared an unlawful association and its offices all over the country were raided. The leaders were arrested and there rose a chaotic moment with this incident.

Answer: The Indian National Army (Also known as the Azad Hind Fauj) was an armed force formed by Indian Nationalists in 1942, through the patronage of the Imperial Japanese Army, to secure the Independence of India.

Indian National Army was active from August 1942 to September 1945. The aim of the Indian National Army was to secure independence of India from the British rule. INA gained tremendous traction under the leadership of Subash Chandra Bose. Some of the most famous battles fought by the Indian National Army (INA) were the Battle of Imphal, Battle of Pokoku, Battle of Central Burma, Battle of Ngakyedauk.

24. When and how many times has National Emergency been declared in India?

OR

Write the consequences of 1971 lndo – Pak War.

Answer: India proclaimed 3 times National Emergency from 1962 to 1977.

  • The first Emergency was declared during the Indo-China war in (26th October 1962 -10th January 1968) by President Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.
  • The second Emergency was declared during the Indo-Pakistan war in (3rd December 1971 – 21st March 1977) by President V. Giri.
  • These 2 emergencies were imposed because of external aggression and war but in (25 Jun 1975 – 21 Mar 1977) due to the clash among the Judiciary system and Legislative assembly of India.

This resulted in Indira Gandhi declared the Emergency with the permission of President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed.

Answer: The 1971 Indo-Pak war resulted in the creation of a new nation named Bangladesh. 93,000 Pakistani soldiers surrendered to Indian Armed forces, this is the biggest surrender after World War II. Pakistan had to be content with losing a major source of revenue generating industries in the newly created Bangladesh. Pakistan lost a huge chunk of its population. Pakistan lost one-third of its army, one-fourth of its air force and lost half of its navy. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman became the 1st president of Bangladesh and he was popularly known as Father of Bangladesh.

25. Describe the powers of the Supreme Court of India.

Answer: The Supreme Court of India has the power to resolve the disputes between the Government of India and states, and has the jurisdiction to resolve disputes between states. The Supreme Court has the power to protect the fundamental rights of the citizens of India. The Central and State Governments, High Courts, tribunals, lower courts, law enforcement agencies of India must abide by the decision taken by the Supreme Court of India. The Supreme Court of India can transfer cases from one high court to another high court, has the power to transfer judges of high courts, can hear appeals against the verdict given by any high court. The Supreme Court of India can also take cases on its own, in legal parlance it is known as suo moto.

OR

Write the procedure of passing a Bill in Parliament.

Answer: The procedure of passing a Bill in Parliament are

1. First Reading: A minister or a member introduces the bill in either house of the Parliament. He asks for leave before introducing the bill. He reads the title and objective of the bill.

After the introduction, the bill is published in the Gazette of India

2. Second Reading: Stage of General Discussion- Four actions can be taken by the house on the bill:

  • It may take the bill into consideration immediately or on some other fixed date
  • It may refer the bill to a select committee of the House
  • It may refer the bill to a joint committee of the two Houses
  • It may circulate the bill to elicit public opinion

Committee Stage:

  • The Select Committee examines the bill thoroughly and in detail, clause by clause.
  • It can also amend its provisions, but without altering the principles underlying it.
  • After completing the scrutiny and discussion, the committee reports the bill back to the House.

Consideration Stage:

  • The House, after receiving the bill from the select committee, considers the provisions of the Bill clause by clause.
  • Each clause is discussed and voted upon separately.
  • The members can also move amendments and if accepted, they become part of the bill.

3. Third Reading: One of the two actions take place:

  • Acceptance of the Bill (If the majority of members present and voting accept the bill, the bill is regarded as passed by the House)
  • Rejection of the Bill

4. Bill in the Second House: The first three stages are repeated here i.e.:

  • First Reading
  • Second Reading
  • Third Reading

The second house can take one of the four actions:

  • It may pass the bill as sent by the first house (ie, without amendments)
  • It may pass the bill with amendments and return it to the first House for reconsideration
  • It may reject the bill altogether
  • It may not take any action and thus keep the bill pending

5. Assent of the President: One of the three actions can be taken by him:

  • May give his assent to the bill (The bill becomes an act and is placed on statute book)
  • May withhold his assent to the bill (The bill ends and does not become an act)
  • May return the bill for reconsideration (The houses can/cannot make amendments and send it back to the President after which he has to give assent)

26. Describe the five hurdles in success of the Indian democratic system.

OR

What is population explosion? Write its adverse effect on society.

Answer: Five hurdles in the success of India democratic system are caste, corruption, creed, competency and unemployment.

  • The greatest challenge of our Democratic system is the caste system. People are so into it, that they even vote according to the caste of the candidate and not their qualification and qualities.
  • Politician’s themselves take the help of their religions to collect votes from people.
  • We are living in one of the most corrupt nations. Due to illiteracy people often choose the wrong candidate and then face corruption.
  • Every government officer, from elite positions, is selected through very tough examinations. But, the politician’s in our country do not even need to pass 12th. This is a crucial process and there should be some competency regarding their selection also.

Answer: Population explosion refers to the extensive increase in the population of a nation which creates a severe decrease in the per capita income, GDP, general health services and other factors.

Population explosion greatly impacts the economic growth of a nation. It leads to generation of more toxic wastes, damage to the environment, more pollution etc. It leads to loss of habitat and puts tremendous pressure on the availability of natural resources such fresh water, arable land and rapidly depletes fossil fuels. It impacts biodiversity as it leads to increase in poaching activities, cutting down trees etc. These are some of the ways in which population explosion impacts the society.

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