MSBSHSE Solutions For SSC (Class 10) Science Part 2 Chapter 8 Cell Biology and Biotechnology, the best study material is designed to help the students be more proficient and score high marks in exams. Maharashtra Board Solutions for Class 10 is created by our subject experts after proper research to facilitate a thorough understanding of the concepts.
Chapter 8 from Part 2 Class 10 Science deals with the concepts related to the topic Cell Biology and Biotechnology. These solutions provide detailed step by step answers to the questions created based on this topic. Other related concepts discussed include Cell Biology (Cytology), Biotechnology and Its Applications, Important Stages in Development of Agriculture, Stem Cells and so on.
These MSBSHSE for Class 10 (SSC) solutions have proper explanations and cover the important exercises found in the Maharashtra Board Science Textbooks for SSC Part 2. The Maharashtra State Board Solutions for Chapter 10 Science Part 2 is a very good resource for the students. It helps them to revise well before exams.
Maharashtra Board SSC (Class 10) Science Part 2 Chapter 8- BYJU’S Important Questions & Answers
1. Write a short note on Biotechnology: Commercial uses.
Answer: Bringing about artificial genetic changes and hybridization in organisms for human welfare is called Biotechnology. Several branches of science like cytology, biochemistry, molecular biology and genetic engineering are all included in biotechnology. There is considerable progress mainly in the field of agriculture and pharmacy due to biotechnology. It is also used in some commercial purposes.
1. Crop Biotechnology is used in agricultural fields to improve yield and variety. Crop biotechnology includes hybrid seeds, genetically modified crops and bio fertilizers.
2. Animal Husbandry: Artificial insemination and embryo transfer are two main methods used in animal husbandry. It helps to improve both the quantity and quality of animal products. Ex. Milk, meat, wool, etc. Similarly, animals with more strength have been developed for hard work.
3. Human Health: Two important aspects of human health management are the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases. Biotechnology helps to identify the role of genes, if any, in the disease of a person. With biotechnology, the diagnosis of diabetes and heart diseases has become possible, even at the onset of the disease. Diagnosis of diseases like AIDS, dengue can be done within a few minutes, thus allowing for the treatment to be done at the earliest.
2. What is cytology and cell biology?
Answer: The study of the structure, types and organelles of the cell is called cellular biology or cytology. Other than these points, it also includes the study of cell division and many other aspects of the cell.
3. Write a short note on Stem Cells.
Answer: Stem cells are special types of cells found in the body of multicellular organisms and these give rise to all other types of cells visible in the body of multicellular organisms. It also plays a crucial role in healing the wound. New organisms are generated from the Zygote formed by the union of male and female gametes. During the early stages of development, the organism is found in the form of a mass of cells. All the cells in that mass are almost alike and are called stem cells. With further development, these cells can make any type of cell, various types of tissues and can perform different functions of the body. This is the differentiation of the stem cells. Once the tissue is formed, the cells in these tissues can form only the same types of cells, in each part of the body. Nevertheless, stem cells are present for a longer period in some parts of the body. Stem cells can be found in the umbilical cord by which the fetus is joined to the uterus of the mother. Meanwhile, they are also present in the blastocyst stage of embryonic development. Stem cells can be found in red bone marrow and adipose connective tissue of adult human beings. It is now possible to produce various types of tissues and the degenerated part of any organ using these stem cells. Now, for the purpose of stem cell preservation, the samples of stem cells are carefully collected from the sources such as cord blood, red bone marrow or embryo (blastocyst). Stem cells are kept in small, sterile vials, which are kept in liquid nitrogen at -1350C to -1900C. Also, as per the source, stem cells are of two types as embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem cells are used for regenerative therapy and during organ transplantation.
4. Write about organ transplantation.
Answer: Several organs in the human body become less efficient or are completely functionless as a result of different reasons such as ageing, accidents, infections, disorders and so on. The lives of these people are difficult and even fatality may take place under such conditions. Nevertheless, if people get the necessary organ under these conditions, lives can be saved. Some organs like one of the kidneys or the skin and so on can be donated during lifetime. However, several factors such as the blood group, diseases, disorders, age and so on should be considered during organ transplantation. Meanwhile, organs like liver, heart and eyes can only be donated posthumously (after death). As per tradition, human bodies are usually disposed of after death. But, the progress in science has made many realise that many organs remain functional for certain periods, even after death occurs, under specific conditions. These can be transplanted to the person who needs it.
5. What are the benefits of organ and body donation?
Answer: Organ and body donation help to save the lives of many people. Blind people are able to regain their vision as a result of eye donation. The lives of many people are also rendered comfortable post the donation of organs such as kidneys, liver, heart, heart valves, skin and so on. The body can also be made available for research in medical studies.
6. What are the benefits of biotechnology?
Answer: Below given are certain benefits of biotechnology:
1. Helps to increase the per hectare yield, irrespective of the limitations of crop-land area
2. Minimising expenses on disease control since the development of resistant varieties
3. Yield per annum has been increased, as a result of the development of fast fruit setting varieties
4. Possible to develop stress resistant varieties that can withstand variable temperature, water-stress, changing fertility of soil and so on
7. Why are safer vaccines being produced?
Answer: The ‘antigen’ containing material given to acquire either permanent or temporary immunity against a specific pathogen or disease is known as Vaccine. Vaccines are traditionally manufactured using pathogens. Completely or partially killed pathogens are being used as vaccines. But, as a result, there was the possibility of some people contracting the disease. As an alternative, scientists tried to artificially make vaccines via biotechnology. To do so, scientists have manufactured the antigen in the laboratory with the help of the gene isolated from the pathogen, used as a vaccine. Hence, safer vaccines are being produced.
8. What are edible vaccines?
Answer: Work is in progress for the manufacture of edible vaccines. Currently, potatoes are being produced using biotechnology. These potatoes are known as transgenic potatoes. They will act against bacteria such as Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli. Meanwhile, consuming these raw potatoes also generates the immunity against cholera and the disease caused due to E. coli.
9. Write about gene therapy.
Answer: It has become possible to treat genetic disorders using gene therapy by applying biotechnology. Examples: Phenylketonuria (PKT) is caused by the genetic changes in hepatocytes (liver cells). Gene therapy can be used to treat this. This method is called somatic cell gene therapy. All the cells except for the sperms and ova in the body are called somatic cells.
10. What is reproductive cloning?
Answer: Reproductive cloning is the process in which a clone can be produced by the fusion of a nucleus of somatic cells with the enucleated ovum of anybody. Thus, there is no need for sperm to produce the new organism.
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