In this chapter, we shall review the main stages and schemes in the development of the educational system in India. We shall take into consideration primary, secondary as well as higher education and besides, research institutes in some representative areas. This will give us an idea of the educational system throughout the country. MSBSHSE Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 solutions are well-crafted by our highly qualified teachers. These MSBSHSE Class 9 solutions of History cover all the important topics included in the chapter. Students should refer to these solutions after solving the textbook questions to cross check their answers.
MSBSHSE Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 Objective Questions: Textbook Important Questions and Solutions
MSBSHSE Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 Textbook Exercise Questions
Q1. Choose the right option and rewrite the sentence.
(1) The scientist who developed the Param-8000 supercomputer –
(a) Dr Vijay Bhatkar
(b) Dr R. H. Dave
(c) P Parthasarathy
(d) None of the above
(2) The magazine Jeevan Shikshan is published by the following institute-
(b) University Education Commission
(3) The educational institution called IIT is famous for education in the area of –
(c) Skilled managers
Answer 1: (a) Dr Vijay Bhatkar
Answer 2: (c) MSCERT
Answer 3: Engineering
Q2. Do as directed.
(1) Complete the table below with details about individuals in the education field and their work.
|First education minister of India|
|Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan|
|Prof Sayyad Rauf|
|Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad||First education minister of India|
|Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan||Chairman of the University Education Commission|
|Prof Sayyad Rauf||Prepared the draft of common statewide curriculum for Standards I to VII for Maharashtra State Board in 1960|
|Anutai Wagh||Kosbad Project|
Q 3. Explain the following statements giving reasons for your answer.
(1) The District Primary Education Programme was undertaken.
(2) The NCERT was established.
(3) The farmers were benefited by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute.
Answer 1: In 1994, the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was started with the objective of universalisation of primary education. It was implemented in seven States including Maharashtra. The plan envisaged 100% attendance in primary schools, arresting student drop-out, education for girls and for the physically handicapped. It included programmes such as research on and evaluation of primary education, alternative education, creating societal awareness, etc. The ‘mid-day meal’ scheme was started in 1995 to provide proper nourishment to students.
Answer 2: National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) was established in Delhi on the 1st of September 1961. Its main objective is to help the Central Government in matters of school education in the context of a comprehensive policy and in implementing educational schemes. The NCERT was given the responsibility of educational research and development, training, extension, educational programmes, restructuring of school curriculum and textbooks. It has played a central role in designing school curricula and textbooks with the cooperation of the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). It provides guidance and cooperation in the area of primary and secondary education to the state governments. It has been involved in designing workbooks and handbooks for teachers, in teacher training, in developing teaching-learning techniques and conducting talent search examinations at the national level.
Answer 3: In India, research in agriculture had begun as early as 1905. The Indian Agricultural Research Institute was given the status of a University in 1958 and work began in departments such as development of the agriculture sector, research, well-equipped laboratories, soil science, agricultural sciences, economic botany and other departments. Research also began on wheat, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables and many other problems. Its most significant achievement is the fundamental research it has conducted on the methods of taking multiple crops in a year, which has been of great benefit to farmers. This Institute maintains a library at its head office in Delhi which is the biggest agriculture-related library in the country.
Q4. Write notes.
(1) Indira Gandhi National Open University
(2) Kothari Commission
(3) Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Answer 1: Indira Gandhi National Open University – This Open University was established with the objective that the stream of education should make its way into every average household of the country. The United Nations had declared 1970 as the International Education Year. In the same year, a seminar was organised in New Delhi on the subject of Open University by the Government of India Departments of Education and Social Welfare, Information and Broadcasting, University Grants Commission along with UNESCO. The idea of establishing an open university evolved in this seminar.
In 1974, the government appointed a committee under the chairmanship of P. Parthasarathy and the Open University took shape on 20 September 1985 in accordance with its recommendations and suggestions. It was named after Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Those who are unable to get a college education in the formal way are given concessions in eligibility criteria, age and other conditions for admission to this university. In 1990, the IGNOU started an audio-visual distance education programme through Akashvani and Doordarshan. It conducted more than one thousand curricula of various branches. It provides facilities for education through 58 training centres in the country and 41 centres in foreign countries.
Answer 2: Kothari Commission – In 1964 a Commission was appointed under the Chairmanship of Dr D. S. Kothari. Dr J. P. Naik made valuable contributions to the work of this Commission. The Commission also recommended the 10+2+3 pattern for secondary, higher secondary and university education. This system was implemented from 1972. The Commission also suggested a uniform national system of education, the inclusion of the mother tongue, Hindi and English in education, as well as continuing education, adult education, education by correspondence and open universities to make education trickle down to the lowest rungs of society. It also recommended increased provision in the government’s budget for expenditure on education of neglected sections like the scheduled castes and tribes. The Maharashtra government adopted the 10+2+3 pattern in 1972 and conducted the first Std X Board exam in 1975.
Answer 3: Bhabha Atomic Research Centre – This institute has conducted valuable research in the fields of nuclear physics, solid state physics, spectroscopy, chemical and life sciences. It also started a school to train scientists for setting up nuclear reactors.
Answer 4: Balbharati – The Maharashtra State Bureau of Textbook Production and Curriculum Research (Balbharati) was established in Pune on 27 January 1967. Balbharati prepares textbooks for school children. Textbooks are made in eight languages, namely, Marathi, Hindi, English, Urdu, Kannad, Sindhi, Gujarati and Telugu. ‘Kishor’, a monthly magazine for children, is also published by Balbharati.
Q5. Answer the following questions in detail.
(1) Which programmes were included in the Operation Blackboard scheme?
(2) What role do the agriculture schools/ colleges play in the development of agriculture?
(3) Describe with examples the progress that India has made in the field of medicine.
Answer 1: Primary education refers to the schooling given to children in the 6 to 14 year age-group. In 1988, the central government started a scheme for the spread of primary education and to improve educational standards. It is known as Operation Blackboard.
Answer 2: The Indian Agricultural Research Institute was given the status of a University in 1958 and work began in departments such as development of the agriculture sector, research, well-equipped laboratories, soil science, agricultural sciences, economic botany and other departments. Research also began on wheat, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables and many other problems. Its most significant achievement is the fundamental research it has conducted on the methods of taking multiple crops in a year, which has been of great benefit to farmers.
Answer 3: In the post-independence period in 1949, the Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR) was established for conducting research in the medical field. It was given the responsibility of cooperating with universities, medical colleges, government and non-government research institutes and giving them guidance and financial support for research activities. Twenty-six centres were started in different parts of the country for research on various diseases. Their research has made it possible to control tuberculosis and leprosy.
The All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) was established to give further impetus to advanced education and research in medicine. It was given the responsibility of undergraduate and postgraduate courses in medicine. For further development of the medical field, the Medical Council of India was restructured in 1958 and was entrusted with the task of determining criteria for quality of medical education, its supervision and inspection. These institutes have the responsibility of conducting research on various diseases, developing tests and standardisation of medicines.