In this chapter, we shall study India’s achievements in the areas of Science and Technology. Also, we are going to learn about the important institutions in the areas of Science and Technology and their contribution. The solutions provided in this article cover all the questions mentioned in the chapter. The MSBSHSE Class 9 solutions of the Social Science History Chapter help students to analyse their preparation level and work on their weak points. Students can use them to practise the questions and ace the exam without fear.
MSBSHSE Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 7 Objective Questions: Textbook Important Questions and Solutions
MSBSHSE Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 7 Textbook Exercise Questions
Q1. (A) Choose the right option and rewrite the sentence.
(1) …………….. was named as the first Chairman of Atomic Energy Commission.
(a) Dr Homi Bhabha
(b) Dr Homi Sethna
(c) Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
(d) Dr Raja Ramanna
(2) …………….. was the first completely indigenous communication satellite made by ISRO.
(b) Insat 1 B
Answer 1: (a) Dr Homi Bhabha
Answer 2: (a) Aryabhatta
(B) Identify the wrong pair.
(1) Prithvi – surface to surface ballistic missile
(2) Agni – surface to underwater ballistic missile
(3) Akash – from surface to air attacking missile
(4) Nag – anti-tank missile
Answer B: Agni – surface to underwater ballistic missile is the wrong pair.
Q2. (A) Prepare a timeline of the progress of India in science and technology.
|1961||India’s first successful Rocket launch|
|1963||Telex Services started|
|1969||India’s indigenously built rocket launched|
|1972||Overseas Communication Service was established|
|1974||India’s first nuclear test and Oil exploration in Bombay Highway|
|1975||India’s first satellite Aryabhatta launched|
|1976||International Subscriber Dialled Telephone Service was started|
|1979||India’s first remote sensing Satellite Bhaskar launched|
|1981||First completely indigenously built satellite by ISRO (APPLE) launched|
|1983||INSAT B-1 launched for improving telecommunication|
|1984||First computerized reservation system and Kolkata metro started|
|1985||India’s first indigneous nuclear reactor setup|
|1988||Prithavi Missile Test|
|1989||Agni Missile Text|
|1990||Akash and Nag Missile Tests|
|1994||Mobile Phone services started|
|1998||India’s second nuclear test|
|2000||Department of telecommunication restructured|
(B) Explain the following concepts.
(1) Space research
(2) Telex service
Answer 1: In 1961, Indian National Committee for Space Research (NCSR) launched India’s first research rocket from Thumba Equatorial Launch Center in Thumba in the State of Kerala. In 1969, our indigenously built rocket Rohini-75 was successfully launched. The next stage was the successful launch of the first Indian satellite Aryabhatta in 1975 with help from the Soviet Union. This success proved that Indian scientists can indigenously build and launch a satellite. Indian scientists were confident that they could acquire the technology for sending a message from the Earth Station and to assess the working of the satellite.
Answer 2: The Department of telecommunications under the ministry of Communications started the telex service in 1963 to transmit typed messages from one part of the country to another rapidly. In 1969, the telex service started in Devanagari script in Delhi. Later it spread all over the country. This service began to be used in different fields. With the rise of the internet after 1990, the significance of this service reduced.
Q3. Explain the following with reasons.
(1) Pandit Nehru established the Atomic Energy Commission.
(2) India decided to conduct nuclear tests.
(3) USA imposed economic sanctions on India.
Answer 1: India’s first Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru wanted to nurture a scientific temper and bring about the nation’s progress. From this perspective, he set up the Indian Atomic Energy Commission on 10th August 1948. Dr Homi Bhabha was appointed as the first Chairman of the Commission. The objectives of the commission were to produce electricity from atomic energy, increase the yield of food grains and make them last longer, set up the technology for achieving this and develop nanotechnology. In 1956, the Department of Atomic Energy set up ‘Apsara’, a nuclear reactor functioning on atomic energy.
Answer 2: India successfully performed her first nuclear test at Pokhran in Rajasthan on 18th May 1974 in consonance with the policy of using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and for self-sufficiency. The reason why India took this decision was China’s nuclear capability and Pakistan’s desperate efforts to acquire nuclear weapons with China’s help. On 11th May 1998, India carried out its second nuclear test to prove its nuclear preparedness. Three tests were done on this day. One of them was the Hydrogen Bomb.
Answer 3: On 11th May 1998, India carried out its second nuclear test to prove its nuclear preparedness. On this day, three tests were done. One of them was the Hydrogen Bomb. Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee assured that there would be no first use of nuclear weapons by India. But the USA imposed economic sanctions on India immediately.
Q4. Write the answers in 25 to 30 words.
(1) Write about Pokhran nuclear test.
(2) For which sector was Bhaskar – 1 satellite expected to be useful?
Answer 1: India successfully performed her first nuclear test at Pokhran in Rajasthan on 18th May 1974 in consonance with the policy of using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and for self-sufficiency. The reason why India took this decision was China’s nuclear capability and Pakistan’s desperate efforts to acquire nuclear weapons with China’s help. Dr Homi Sethna, the chairman of the Indian Atomic Energy Commission and Dr Raja Ramanna, Director of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre played a major role in conducting this nuclear test. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi took the decision of carrying out a ‘nuclear explosion’. Pokhran was chosen on the basis of the required criteria for the location of the nuclear tests: far away from human settlement and no groundwater reserves.
Answer 2: India launched remote sensing experimental satellite Bhaskar-1 from the Soviet Union in 1979 in order to observe various things on the surface of the earth by remote sensing technology. This remote sensing technology would be useful for India’s development regarding water bodies, mineral deposits and forecasting weather. The photographs taken with the help of this technology about the bowels of the earth, environment and forests were important. Another area in which the information from this satellite was useful was oceanography. In 1981, ‘Bhaskar-2’ was launched from Soviet Union.
Q5. Write in brief.
(1) Which of the everyday services are influenced by the satellite technology?
(2) Why is Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam called the ‘Missile Man’?
(3) How one can do computerised reservation for rail travel?
(4) Write the key features of Konkan Railway.
Answer 1: Everyday services that are influenced by satellite technology are telecommunication, navigation, defence security, internet, television, radio, etc.
Answer 2: In 1958, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) was established under the Department of Defence of the Government of India. The objective of this organisation was to make India self-sufficient with respect to means, equipment and weapons required for defence. After 1983, this organisation developed several missiles under the leadership of Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. Dr Kalam has made a great contribution in the production of missiles. Dr Kalam is known as the father of India’s missile programme. He is also referred to as the ‘Missile Man’ of India.
Answer 3: The technology adopted by railways has a big role in the history of modern India. In order to bring efficiency, accuracy and coordination in the reservation system in rail travel, a computerized reservation system was started for the first time in Delhi in 1984.
Answer 4: Konkan Railway started in 1998. There are several records of technology to the credit of Konkan Railway which stretches over the four States of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Kerala over a distance of 760 kilometers. There are 12 tunnels on this track. The 6.5 km tunnel at Karbude is the longest tunnel. There are 179 big and 1819 small bridges on this track. Out of these, the 2065.8m long bridge on River Sharavati near Honnawar is the biggest. The 64m tall bridge on River Panval near Ratnagiri is India’s tallest bridge. For avoiding accidents on tracks that are prone to landslides, there are sensors fitted to the railway engines.