Genomic DNA Vs. Plasmid DNA Isolation

Both genomic DNA isolation and plasmid DNA isolation are extraction procedures vital for the isolation of DNA to be used in the different principles and techniques in the field of biotechnology. Particularly, the isolation of DNA finds its applications in polymerase chain reaction, gel electrophoresis and some sequencing techniques of DNA.

The important difference between genomic DNA isolation and plasmid DNA isolation is that genomic DNA isolation makes use of strong lysis, involving the mechanical or enzymatic disintegration of the cell membranes to give out the genomic DNA into the solution. This DNA can be purified from the proteins and lipid membrane.

On the other hand, the plasmid DNA isolation makes use of temperate alkaline lysis to obtain plasmid DNA into the solution with the genomic DNA. The separation of plasmid DNA from the genomic DNA requires neutralization with potassium acetate.

Genomic DNA Isolation

  • It is a simpler process as strong lysis is the only essential step to release the genomic DNA in the solution. Lysis of bacteria, plants and yeast requires the enzymatic breakdown of the cell wall (that is rigid and strong), before the plasma membrane is mechanically disrupted
  • Once lysis is performed, the sample is purified using spin filter membrane technology along with guanidine salts that facilitate the association to silica

Plasmid DNA Isolation

  • Plasmid DNA is extracted from cells in this process
  • Here recognizing and using the apt lysis method for successful separation of plasmid DNA from the genomic DNA, the process can be a bit complicated
  • The process includes – Cell Cultivation, Resuspension, Cell Lysis, Neutralization, Cleaning and Concentration

Key Differences between Genomic DNA and Plasmid DNA Isolation

The table below depicts the differences between Genomic DNA and Plasmid DNA Isolation.

Genomic DNA Isolation

Plasmid DNA isolation

What is it?

It is the process of isolating genomic DNA from a sample

It is the process of isolating plasmid DNA from the bacteria bearing plasma

What is its source?

Prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells

Bacterial cells containing plasmids

Cell Lysis

The process makes use of strong lysis such as enzymatic breakdown of the membrane of the cell to liberate genomic DNA.

It is a simpler process

The process makes use of temperate alkaline lysis to obtain plasmid DNA with the genomic DNA.

The process is complicated, the detergent used is sodium dodecyl sulfate

What is extracted?

Complete genomic DNA is extracted

Plasmid DNA is extracted

Where does the DNA appear at the time of Centrifugation?

Genomic DNA occurs in the pellet

Plasmid DNA occurs in the supernatant

Cell lysis buffer – pH

For genomic DNA isolation, it is 7-9, denaturation of DNA does not occur

For plasmid DNA isolation, it is in the range 12.1-12.3, it denatures genomic and plasmid DNA both

Downstream applications

Sequencing or Polymerase chain reaction

Gene therapy or cloning transfection

You read some differences between Genomic DNA Isolation and Plasmid DNA Isolation. For more such articles and NEET preparation articles, visit us at BYJU’S NEET.

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