Working of Computer

In our previous chapter, we have learned about the computer, types of computers, main parts of the computer, its applications and some safety precautions to be followed while working on the computer. Here, in this chapter, we will be learning about the working process of computers, computer hardware, software and different types of computer languages.

How does the Computer work?

The computer is an electronic device that needs data to perform its functions and result. Here, the given data to the computer is called the input data, and the result received from the computer is called the output.

Computers have different parts to perform the complete process, such as a memory unit, an input unit, a processing unit, and an output unit, in which the data and the results are stored.

Parts of Computer

The computer has five main parts:

Input Unit

  • The input unit is used to enter data into the computer.
  • A user working on a computer enters the data through the keyboard, mouse, etc.

Memory Unit

  • A memory unit is a storage unit.
  • This unit stores the input data or the given instructions on a computer.

Control Unit

  • The control unit has overall control over the computer.
  • This unit controls the other units of the computer by giving instructions.

ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit

  • This unit carries out arithmetic and logic operations, such as addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*) division, etc.
  • The ALU and control unit together make one unit which is called the CPU – Central Processing Unit.

Output Unit

  • This unit is used to receive the results or the processed data.
  • A user can view the output data on a monitor, and the obtained result can also be printed with the help of a printer. The printer is an example of an output device.

Computer Hardware

  • Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, which can be seen or touched.
  • The hardware devices have a definite shape and size.
  • Human beings make computer hardware devices.
  • These hardware devices have the possibility of wear and tear.
  • Every hardware device has different functions, and these devices are joined together.

Computer Software

Software is a computer program that works according to the user’s instructions given to the computer.

We watch different programs on television. These programs, which provide us entertainment in different ways, are called software.

Computer software is developed to achieve specific objectives, also known as a program. Software is that part of a computer that we cannot see.

We can work on the software by giving instructions and getting the output.

Types of Software

Based on its uses and applications, computer software is divided into two parts:

System Software

  • The system software functions by controlling all the activities of a computer.
  • This software helps in controlling both the hardware device and other software.

Application Software

The application software is mainly developed to perform some specific tasks.

The application software is used in:

  • To obtain the records for weather forecasting
  • Reservation counter for booking railway tickets
  • Offices to maintain the salaries records of employees

Computer Languages

The machine language developed to control computer tasks is called the computer language.

Computer language is a formal language used in communication with a computer. A computer works on different data and instructions, but all these data and instructions are converted into machine code before the computer uses them.

Types of Computer Language

Low-Level Language

  • It is also called the machine language.
  • It is made up of only two digits (0s and1s).
  • It is difficult for a layman to read and understand this language.

Assembly Language

  • Assembly language uses symbolic codes.
  • This language was more accessible than the machine language.
  • Assembly language was developed after the machine language.
  • To understand this language, an ordinary person has to be trained.

High-Level Language

  • This is an easy, simple and user-friendly language.

Frequently Asked Questions


What is an assembler?

An assembler is software used to convert assembly language into machine language.


Which is the input unit?

The input unit is the unit used to enter data into the computer.


What is data?

The set of instructions given to the computer is called data. Data include different types of facts and figures.


What is the function of the control unit?

The computer’s control unit controls all other units by giving instructions to them and controls the overall working of a computer.


Give examples of the input device and output devices.

The mouse and keyboard are examples of input devices.
The printer is an example of an output device.


What is a computer program?

The set of instructions given to a computer is called a computer program.


What is machine language?

The language, which a computer understands, is called machine language.


What is system software?

The software, which controls the hardware and the other software, is called the system software.

Stay tuned to BYJU’S for more information on NIOS, syllabus, notes, along with its important questions and solutions.


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