Transport plays an essential part in economic growth and globalisation. In today’s fast and busy life, we all are dependent on the means of transport.
- Children need transport to go to school
- Adults have to go to the office
- On weekends we often need to go far off to meet our relatives and friends
- We need transport for shopping and to buy things of daily use like vegetables, milk, fruits and other food items.
Development of Transport
In ancient times, where there were no means of transportation, people used to go from one place to another on foot. With the help of animals, they used to carry goods. Pulling the heavy goods was also used for transport. Gradually, the need for carrying heavy goods developed, following which the wheel was invented and developed.
Other developments in the transport system are:
- Gradually there was a transformation of narrow roads into broad roads.
- The development of the wheel changed the whole world.
- Road transport, rail transport, air transport and water transport were developed.
- With the help of aeroplanes, trains, ships and road transport, we can now travel easily from any place in less time.
- With the help of this development, it has been possible to quickly move heavy goods, coal, grains, pulses, wheat, rice, pea, etc., from one corner of the country to another corner.
Types of Transport
The means of road transport are cycle, rickshaw, bus, truck, car, scooter, motorcycle, bullock cart, tonga, camel cart, etc.
Developments in the road transport system are:
- Road transport picked up speed after the development of the wheel.
- All the roads in the village are entirely transformed.
- Every village in the country is connected with the main road.
- Massive national highways have developed. These national highways have been connected to every big city and to the capital of every state.
Most people travel and carry their goods through rail- transport in the world. Indian rail transport is the biggest in Asia and second in the world. There are three types of train routes in India based on the distance between the railway tracks.
- Broad-Gauge – The metros and big cities are connected through the broad gauge.
- Meter-Gauge – The metre gauge is used in around 95,000 kilometres. Now all the meter gauge tracks are being changed into broad gauge tracks.
- Narrow-Gauge – The small gauge is called a narrow gauge or a small line.
Developments in the rail transport system are:
- The government has planned to connect all parts of the country by train.
- The first underground train started from Kolkata.
- Now Metro trains in Delhi and other metropolitan cities have created a stir.
- Fast speed trains like Shatabdi and Rajdhani have been introduced, which run significantly faster than other trains.
The water transport started before road and rail transport. It is comparatively less expensive than rail and road transport. An important role is played by water transport in foreign trades.
Developments in the water transport system are:
- Big ships and submarines have been developed.
- In our country, goods and passengers are carried through the rivers.
- Nowadays goods are moved from one country to another country through ships.
- These days, ships are so large that many fighter planes can land and take off from them.
Air transport is the primary mode of high-speed transport. The Wright Brothers introduced the first flying machine in 1903.
Developments in the air transport system are:
- Helicopters, AirBus, gliders, fighter planes, etc., were developed.
- Now aeroplanes fly to main cities and capitals of all the states.
- Airports have now been made at those places where it was impossible to reach earlier.
- People walked kilometres to bring water from rivers, ponds, lakes, and wells in ancient times.
- Today, with the development of the transport system, we can receive water to our home directly through the pipelines.
- Pipelines are also used to carry oil, natural gas, etc.
- Nowadays, cooking gas, petrol, CNG, etc., are all transported through pipelines.
What is Communication?
Communication is a process of exchanging information through verbal and non-verbal methods.
Communication is a two-way means of communicating information, thoughts, feelings, views, opinions and ideas between two or more individuals.
E-mail, phone calls, video conferences, books, memos, letters, sketches, newspapers, books and the internet are important parts of communication.
Development of Means of Communication
Today we are living in a modern era of communication.
The history of communication is as old as human civilisation. In ancient days, when there were no means of communication, people used to send messages through a very faithful and trustworthy person. Interestingly, people used to train birds like pigeons, parrots and eagles to send messages. Kings used their fast running horses and camels for sending messages.
There is a Pigeon Force in the Army of France that works today. The ‘Pigeon Mail Service’ is also working in the Indian Navy. Today also, people send messages through fire, through the reflection of light from the mirror, etc. These pigeons had worked as messengers with full responsibility during the First and the Second World Wars.
The development in communication include:
- The first message service was established in England in 1897. This service functioned till 1980.
- With the development of alphabets, people learnt to read and write.
- Leaves were used to share information, which gradually changed into books, newspapers and magazines.
- After the discovery of the printing press, apart from books, newspapers and magazines were printed and used in communication.
Development of Communication in India
The communication system in India was adequately started in 1837. The first communication system was a postal service. Later in 1854, the government opened different postal departments and the pin code system was introduced in 1972. On 15th September 1959, the first programme of Delhi Doordarshan was broadcast.
Means of Communication.
- Earlier, in the 1840s, the means of sending and receiving messages were slow in speed.
- After the invention of the electric telegraph, sending and receiving messages got quicker.
- In 1860 all the world’s big cities were connected through the telegraph line.
- The telephone is an essential means of communication.
- Alexander Graham discovered the first telephone in 1876.
- With the help of the telephone, it was possible to send our voice through the wire.
- Later, telephone exchanges were established in cities.
- Today with modern technology, we can talk through the telephone without wire.
- Tele-printer was discovered after the telephone.
- Tele-printer is used for sending any quick messages in written form.
- The messages can be transmitted through teleprinter from far away places. The received messages are printed on paper and delivered.
- Tele-text was discovered after the teleprinter.
- In those days, with the help of tele-text, we could see the pictures on television’s screen.
- Today’s tele-text is used to show the arrival and departure time of planes and trains, status of reservation in trains, information on sports, and the weather.
- Radio is one of the most important means of communication.
- In India, the first radio broadcasting was started after the revolution in 1920.
- Before the invention of the radio, the villagers used to receive the country and the world’s messages through newspapers and magazines.
- Sometimes when the news reached the village, it would become old.
- Later, recent news started being received after the radio was introduced.
- Television has brought a revolution in communication.
- After the invention of television, we can watch the news, information about different events and watch many programmes related to entertainment and education.
- On the radio, we could only listen, but on television, we can also see the pictures.
Computer and Internet
- With the invention of the computer, the world of communication changed.
- Today with the help of computers and the internet, we can work, communicate and learn about different things online.
- We can learn about further education, transport, entertainment, etc.
- Today, with computers’ help, we can collect information about everything and new inventions in the world.
- With the help of computers, we can also watch sports while sitting at our home.
- With the help of computers, we can learn about the new variety of crops grown.
- With the help of computers, we can also gain information about their diseases, available treatment and other related information.
Frequently Asked Questions on Transport System
How many types of lights are there in the traffic light symbol?
There are three types of lights in the traffic light symbol. Red, Green and Yellow.
Red light – Means to stop
Greenlight – Means keep going
Yellow light – Means wait, see, and then go.
How many types of train tracks are there in India?
There are three types of train tracks in India.
What is the name of the longest road in India?
G.T Road or Grand Trunk Road is the longest road in India. It was first constructed from Peshawar (Pakistan) to Kolkata (India) by Sher Shah Suri.
When was the first train started in India?
The very first train started in India was in 1853. This train first travelled from Mumbai to Thane.
List out the materials carried through pipelines.
Water, fuel, CNG, petrol, cooking gas, natural gas, etc., are all sent through pipelines.
In which Indian city did the first underground train start?
The first underground train started in Kolkata, the capital city of India’s West Bengal state.
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