Our Social and Economic Environment

We are all living in an age of science and development. Within a short period, we travel from one country to another. Sitting at home, we get news from different parts of the world. People from all over the world are linked to one another in one form or another.

All this is only possible due to globalization, which has paved the way for development.

Let us learn more in detail about the term globalization.

What is Globalization?

Globalization is essential for progress and development.

Globalization refers to the connectivity of the whole world by some media or the other. With advanced science and technology, many changes and developments took place, which changed the scenario across the globe.

Globalization is essential for development and progress.

Globalization helps promote and increase the interactions between different regions and populations around the globe and also speed up movements and developments all over the planet.

Right to Education

Millions of children in our country cannot read and write due to poverty. Children belonging to the rural and urban slum areas are helpless, destitute, backward and neglected.

During their school-going age, these children are forced to become labourers. Many of such children get into the wrong company and learn bad habits. Due to which neither their family progresses nor the country.

Education is essential for development.

The increasing illiterate population became a challenge to the country. The Government has enacted the ‘Right to Education Act’ to overcome this.

The right to education is a fundamental right. The act is about the free and compulsory education for children and was passed by the Parliament in August 2009. India became one among 135 countries where education is a fundamental right of every child.

  • Under the act, compulsory and better education will be provided free to all the children.
  • This act ensures free and compulsory education for every child.
  • This act is a boon for those children who were so far deprived of education due to poverty.
  • The right of children to free and compulsory education act 2009 provides and ensures free education up to class 8th to all children between 6 – 14 years age group.
  • For physically and mentally disabled children, free education is up to 18 years.
  • Every child has a right to admission in government, government-aided, private schools such as Navodaya, Central and Military schools.
  • This act provides free education with no fees, free books, exercise books, uniforms, school bags, along with mid-day meals.
  • All private schools have to reserve 25% seats for the poor and other categories of children.
  • According to this act, schools cannot demand parents for donations and fees in any form for admission.
  • Schools can not deny admission due to the absence of a birth certificate, T.C., or any other such document and are not allowed to interview parents or test a child for admission.

Right to Information

Every time we go shopping or make any purchase, we pay the bill along with the tax. We pay many taxes to the Government in many forms.

Where does this tax money go?

The right to information is a fundamental right, which empowers ordinary citizens to question the Government and its work.

With this tax money, the Government provides facilities to people, such as:

  • Government constructs roads, bridges and sewage systems.
  • Provide health, education, defence and security facilities.
  • Many welfare and developmental schemes are implemented with people’s money only.

Therefore, people have the right to know whether their money is being used properly or not.

The Right to Information Act became effective on 13th October 2005.

Under this act, every citizen has the right to get the required information. Every citizen has the right to get information about any construction, policies, programme and project affecting their life.

What rights are available under RTI 2005?

Right to Information Act empowers the citizen to:

  • Take copies of any government documents.
  • Inspect papers, files and records of any department.
  • Take samples of materials used in any government work.
  • Ask for the account of the expenditure of construction of any government building.
  • Inspect muster roll of labourers, logbook, documents of tender and cashbook, etc.
  • Take the information about rights of officials and officers, salary allowance and its payment.
  • Inspect departmental schemes regarding expenditure, list of beneficiaries, expenses vouchers and audit reports.

Which information cannot be disclosed or provided?

A person can receive all information in the public interest. However, there is certain information for which there shall be no obligation to provide.

These are as follows:

  • Any confidential information received from a foreign government.
  • Any such documents which have been forbidden by any court of law or tribunal.
  • Any such information would affect the country’s unity, integrity and security.
  • Disclosure of such papers would cause a breach of privilege of Parliament or the State Legislature.
  • Any such information would endanger any person’s life or physical safety or may lead to criminal activity.

Method and rules for providing information

  1. Anyone can apply for information.
  2. An applicant may deliver a written application either in Hindi, English, or other local languages. It may be given by hand or sent by post to the related department’s Public Information Officer (PIO).
  3. The application should have the complete name, address, age, occupation, telephone number of the applicant, date, and the details of the required information must be mentioned in the application.
  4. While submitting the application, an applicant should deposit a general fee of Rs. 10.
  5. Applicants have to make an extra payment of Rs. 2 per information page for more information.
  6. Similarly, the application fee varies with the required information.
  7. Once after applying with the Public Information Officer, the concerned officer must provide the information within 30 days.
  8. If a concerned officer delays providing information, a fine of Rs. 250 per day can be imposed by the Information Commissioner.
  9. The maximum fine of Rs. 25,000 can be imposed.
  10. The time varies with the source and type of information required:
  • If the information relates to a person’s life, then the time limit is 48 hours.
  • If the information has to be obtained from any other department, then the time limit is 35 days.
  • If the information affects the life and liberty of an individual, it has to be made available in 48 hours.

MNREGA – Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

Along with the increasing population, unemployment is also increasing

simultaneously. Due to this, many people are suffering and are heading towards cities searching for employment.

The Government has enacted MNREGA – Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 for the rural people to get employment in their villages.

  • The MNREGA has become a fundamental right of rural people.
  • In a financial year, the MNREGA Act guarantees hundred days of employment.
  • The MNREGA Act was introduced with a primary aim – eradicating rural unemployment and developing villages.

Eligibility for employment

The priority is given to women.

Above 18 years of age are eligible for employment.

Only one person from a family will get employment.

A person should be capable of working and belonging to the local Panchayat.

How to apply for this employment?

  • Adult rural household members may apply for employment if they are willing to do unskilled manual work.
  • The application must be filled and submitted to the local Gram Panchayat office.
  • No fee will be paid with the application.
  • Once after submitting the application, collect the dated receipt of the application.
  • The Gram Panchayat will do the registration after due verification of application.
  • Application has to be submitted to the Gram Panchayat for a job card.
  • Gram Panchayat will issue a job card to the household within 10 to 12 days of registration.
  • The job card will have a photograph of an adult family member willing to work under MNREGA.
  • The job card with a photo is free of cost and is valid for five years.
  • Employment will be given within 12 to 15 days of registration.
  • Information about the work site will be displayed at the Gram Panchayat and Area Panchayat office.
  • If employment is not provided within 10 days, they will give an unemployment allowance.
  • If the work is not provided within a 5 km radius of the village, they must pay extra transportation expenses.

Disbursement of wages

  • Details of work done will be entered into the job card.
  • Will pay equal wages to males and females for similar work.
  • Shall disburse wages within 15 days under all circumstances.
  • Wages will be deposited in the labourer’s bank or post office account.

Frequently Asked Questions on Our Social and Economic Environment


What is the full form of MNREGA?

The full form of MNREGA is Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.


What are the facilities given to labourers in addition to wages?

In addition to wages, labourers are provided with

  • Free drinking water at the worksite.
  • Crèche facility will be provided for small children of labourers.
  • Provisions shall be made to depute one of the women workers to look after children.
  • Free medical treatment will be provided to the labourer if the injury is caused while working.
  • If the labourer or their child dies, compensation of Rs. 25,000 shall be paid to the legal heirs of the deceased.

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