NIOS A-Level EVS Chapter 4 - The Environment

What is the Environment?

All the things you can see or feel around you are your environment.

An Environment can be defined as everything around us, which includes both living and nonliving things. The environment plays an essential role in the existence of life.

Air, water, clouds, soil, birds, trees, flowers, animals, vehicles, buildings, etc., all together make our environment.

Environments of Different Places

Different places have different environments with varying types of physical features, animals and plants.

  • A village has a different environment than a city with a pollution-free environment, farms, different types of birds, domestic animals, etc.
  • A forest has a different environment with trees, fresh air to breathe, evergreen trees, herbs, shrubs, vines, creepers and various animals, birds and insects.
  • A desert has a different environment with sand-dunes, dry and hot climates, thorny bushes, and camels.
  • Mountains are tall, rocky structures and have trees mainly of Pines, Deodar, chinar etc.

We find different environments near oceans, ponds, mountains, plains, sea-shores etc. This environment is divided into Physical and Biological Environments.

Physical and Biological Environment

Physical Environments

A physical environment can be described as anything we can

see, hear, smell, taste, and feel. Air, water, soil, temperature, humidity, roads, vehicles, the Sun, the Moon, stars etc., are examples of the physical environment. All non-living things make a physical environment.

Biological Environment

A biological environment can be described as anything having a life. Human beings, trees, plants, herbs, shrubs, vines, creepers, animals, birds, insects and other living creatures are examples of the biological environment. All living things make the biological environment.

Living Things

A living thing has the following characteristics:

  • A living thing has life
  • A living thing needs food
  • A living thing breathes
  • A living thing grow
  • A living thing can move at its own
  • A living thing feels cold, hot, anger, love etc.
  • A living thing can produce babies similar to them.
  • A living thing dies after a certain age.

Animals, birds, insects, reptiles, plants, trees and human beings are examples of living things.

Non-Living Things

  1. A non-living thing is lifeless.
  2. Non-living things may either be created by nature or made by human beings.
  3. The Sun, the Moon, the stars, oceans, mountains, stones, deserts, forests, waterfalls are all examples of natural things created by nature.
  4. Buildings, medicines, clothes, roads, wheels, electrical poles, water pumps and pipes, cars, bikes, busses, vans, aeroplanes, ships, trains, etc., are all examples of man-made things.

Frequently Asked Questions


How do you identify these plants?

Plants are identified based on their size, shape, leaves, flowers and fruits.


Give examples of animals living in water.

Fish, jellyfish, shark, octopus, tortoise and whale.


Give examples of animals living on trees.

Animals like monkeys, squirrels and some snakes live on trees.


Give five examples of trees.

Example of trees

  1. Gulmohar
  2. Neem tree
  3. Mango tree
  4. Banyan tree
  5. Coconut tree

Give five examples of birds.

Example of birds

  1. Owl
  2. Crow
  3. Eagle
  4. Parrot
  5. Pigeon

Give five examples of insects.

Example of insects

  1. Ant
  2. Mosquito
  3. Honey bee
  4. Housefly
  5. Butterfly

Give five examples of living and non-living things.

Examples of living things – elephants, mango trees, frogs, snakes and pigeons.

Examples of non-living things – Car, gas stove, road, house, building.


Give five examples of things made by human beings.

Electric poles, tables, roads, cars, and buses are examples of man-made things.

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