 # Multiplication

Multiplication is the easy process of repeated addition. The number which is multiplied is called multiplicand, the number by which we multiply is a multiplier, and the result after multiplication is called the product. The symbol for multiplication is × or *.

## Multiplication of Numbers

As mentioned above, adding a number repeatedly is called multiplication.

3 * 3 = 9

3 + 3 + 3 = 9

We can use this method for simpler and smaller numbers. In the case of more significant numbers, we need to multiply using the multiplication tables.

Adding a particular number repeatedly is called a table of that number.

When the cost of one thing is given, we use multiplication to find the price of many things.

For example:

If the cost of one ice cream cone is 25 Rs. Then what will be the cost of five ice cream cones?

Sol

The cost of one ice cream cone is 25 Rs.

The cost of five ice cream cones will be

25 * 5 = 125 Rs.

The cost of five ice cream cones will be 125 Rs.

### Characteristics of Multiplication

• Multiplication of two numbers gives the same result even if we exchange the multiplicand and multiplier.

For example:

2 * 4 = 8

4 * 2 = 8

3 * 2 = 6

2 * 3 = 6

• Multiplying any number by 1 or 1 by any number, the product remains the same as the number.

For example:

9 * 1 = 9

1 * 3 = 3

• Any number multiplied by zero or zero by any number, the product will be zero.

For example:

5 * 0 = 5

0 * 7 = 0

• Multiplying a number by 10 or 10 by any number, the product is obtained by putting one zero to the right of the number.

For example:

10 * 2 = 20

10 * 4 = 40

10 × 6 = 60

10 × 8 = 80

• Multiplying 100 by any number or 100 by any number, the product is obtained by putting two zeros to the rights of the number.

For example:

100 * 3 = 300

100 * 5 = 500

100 × 7 = 700

10 × 9 = 900

Multiplication of a two-digit number by a one-digit number

Multiply 12 by 2,

 1 2 * 2 24

2 * 2 = 4

1 * 2 = 2

Therefore, 12 * 2 = 24

Multiply 82 by 2,

 8 2 * 2 164

2 * 2 = 4

8 * 2 = 16

Therefore, 82 * 2 = 164

Multiplication with carryover

Multiply 26 by 3

 26 * 3 78

6 * 3 = 18

2 * 3 = 6

26 * 3 = 78

First multiply the ones digits 6 by 3, 6 * 3 = 18.

Now 8 is written below one’s place and 1 is carried over.

Now tens place digit 2 is multiplied by 3, 2×3 = 6 add 1, which is carried over

(2 * 3=6 + 1 = 7).

Therefore multiplying 26 by 3, we get 78.

Multiplication of a three-digit number by a single-digit number

Multiply 472 by 4

 472 * 4 1888

First multiply ones digit 2 by 4, 2 * 4 = 8.

Now multiply tens digit by 7 * 4 = 28

Write 8 below tens place, and 2 is carried over to hundreds place.

Now multiply hundred place digit by 4 * 4 = 16, add 2, which is carried over – (4 * 4 = 16 + 2 = 18)

Therefore, multiplying 472 by 4 , we get 1888.

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