The States of India and their Physical Features

India is a vast country, and in terms of the area, it is the seventh-largest country in the world. Geographically, India’s total area is 32.8 lakh square kilometre, the length from North to South is 3214 kilometres, and the breadth from East to West is 2933 kilometres.

India is surrounded on three sides by the Ocean, the Bay of Bengal in the East, the Arabian Sea in the West and the Indian Ocean in the South. These three oceans meet in Tamil Nadu’s Kanyakumari. Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep islands in the Arabian Sea are the two groups of islands.

The States and Union Territories of India

There are 29 states and 7 union territories.

The names of the twenty-nine states and their capitals are listed below:

State

Capital

Andhra Pradesh

Amaravati

Arunachal Pradesh

Itanagar

Assam

Dispur

Bihar

Patna

Chhattisgarh

Raipur

Goa

Panaji

Gujarat

Gandhinagar

Haryana

Chandigarh

Himachal Pradesh

Shimla

Jharkhand

Ranchi

Karnataka

Bengaluru

Kerala

Thiruvananthapuram

Madhya Pradesh

Bhopal

Maharashtra

Mumbai

Manipur

Imphal

Meghalaya

Shillong

Mizoram

Aizawl

Nagaland

Kohima

Odisha

Bhubaneswar

Punjab

Chandigarh

Rajasthan

Jaipur

Sikkim

Gangtok

Tamil Nadu

Chennai

Telangana

Hyderabad

Tripura

Agartala

Uttar Pradesh

Lucknow

Uttarakhand

Dehradun

West Bengal

Kolkata

The names of the seven union territories and their capitals are listed below:

Union Territory

Capital

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Port Blair

Chandigarh

Chandigarh

Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu

Daman

Delhi

New Delhi

Jammu and Kashmir

Srinagar

Lakshadweep

Kavaratti

Puducherry

Pondicherry

Ladakh

Leh

The Physical features and resources of India

India has all the major physical features of the earth. It has the high Himalaya mountains, northern and coastal plains, deserts, plateaus and islands. The land of India displays significant physical variation, and this is because of the difference in climate; the wildlife, flora fauna are different at different places.

The physical features of India can be grouped under the six following divisions:

  • The Northern Mountains
  • The Northern (Indo Gangetic) Plains
  • The Peninsular Plateau
  • The Indian (Thar) Desert
  • The Coastal Plains
  • The Islands

Major Crops and Vegetation

India is an agriculture-based country. Overall, 70 to 80 % of the population is dependent on agriculture. Different crops are widely grown in India.

This is mainly because of the climate, and different kinds of soils are found in different parts of our country.

The major crops and vegetation in India are:

  • Food crops like rice, wheat, maize, millet, pulses are widely grown.
  • Cash crops like cotton, jute, sugarcane, tobacco and oilseeds are also grown.
  • Plantation crops like tea, coffee, coconut and rubber are grown.
  • Horticulture crops like fruits and vegetables are grown.

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