Soil and Crops

Soil is one of the five essential elements, which compose life, and make up the universe. All kinds of cereals, pulses, vegetables, fruits, flowers and other medicinal herbs are grown in the soil. Soil and crops have an unbreakable bond, and harvesting depends on the soil.

Let us learn more about the soil, its types and its importance.

Types of Soil

There are different types of soil. According to the land formation, our country has four main types of soil.

Clay Soil

  • Clay soil is also called fuller’s earth.
  • This soil can hold water for a more extended period.
  • Cotton, rice, sugarcanes and grams are produced in this soil.

Sandy Soil

  • Sandy soil is also called light soil.
  • This soil can soak more water but retain less.
  • Melons, potatoes, sweet potatoes and groundnuts are produced in this soil.

Alluvial Soil

  • Alluvial soil has the quality of both light and heavy soil.
  • This soil is suitable for most crops.

Acidic Soil

  • Acidic soil is not suitable for farming.
  • Acidic soil makes the top soil very acidic.
  • Land with this type of soil is called infertile land.

Production of Crops

To keep our bodies healthy, we drink filtered water, eat a balanced diet and keep ourselves clean.

Similarly, crops also require proper care and nutrients such as water, air and the sun to keep them healthy and produce a better yield.

Any lapse or deficiency will make the crop weak, and if the crop is weak, there will be a decrease in yield. Therefore, for a good harvest, it is essential to know and understand the needs of a good crop.

Crop production involves the following steps:

  • Sowing of crop
  • Preparing the farm
  • Seed treatment
  • Weeding and digging
  • Irrigation
  • Compost and fertilizer
  • Protection of crops
  • Harvesting and sorting

Types of Crops

For every crop to grow and ripen, a specific climate is required. Some crops need cool weather while others flourish in hot weather. In the same way, some crops need more water and humid weather.

There are three seasons for crops – Rabi, Kharif and Zayyad.

Rabi Crop

  • Rabi crops are planted at the beginning of cold weather. (The month of November- December)
  • They are harvested at the start of the hot season. (The month of March – April).
  • Gram, linseed, mustard, peas, potatoes, oats, rye, heat, etc., are rabi crops.

Kharif Crops

  • Kharif crops are sown once the monsoon season begins. (The month of July – August).
  • They are harvested at the onset of cold weather. (The month of October – November).
  • Cotton, maize, millets, moong, rice, sugarcane, tobacco, urad, etc., are kharif crops.

Zayyad Crops

  • Zayyad crops are additional crops grown after harvesting the rabi crop, and before the sowing of Kharif crops, generally when the fields are empty.
  • They are sown in March – April and harvested before the rainy season.
  • Brinjals, cucumber, gourd, ladyfingers, melon, pumpkin, sunflower, ridge gourd, watermelon, etc., are zayyad crops.

Stay tuned to BYJU’S for more information on NIOS, syllabus, notes, along with its important questions and solutions.

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