Evolution of Human Civilisation

The development of primitive man took place millions of years before that of primates. The story of the development of primordial civilisation started from the Stone Age.

Life of the Primitive Man

Primates were the early man, who had hair on their bodies, broad teeth and lived in caves. Primates included homonides and hominids.

Homonides were more progress compared to hominids. Later came the homo-habilis. The homo-habilis were more developed, and they started hunting. The homo-habili were the first to make tools from stones.

Later came the homo-Erectus. The homo-Erectus were more developed and could stand straight on their feet. They lived in a group and roamed together, searching for food, water, shelter and hunted animals.

After a long time, intelligent homo-sapiens developed, who used their brains and were developed entirely, compared to early man.

During the Early Stone Age and Middle Stone Age, the primordial man lived in caves near the river. The primordial man during their period led an uncivilised and nomadic life. They roamed in a naked state. They ate the raw flesh of animals, directly after hunting them, etc.

Later, towards the end of the Middle Stone Age, these primordial men started covering their body parts with the bark of trees, leaves, and animal leather and protected themselves from heat, cold and rain.

Later, they started farming, growing plants with seeds and began eating fruits, roots vegetables, and other plant products.

The farming technique used by the primordial man is called digging sticks. It is an ancient technique of farming. Along with farming, primordial men started living a civilised life by covering their bodies, built their dwellings on farms with the combination of mud and grass, and therefore lived in a settled manner.

Indus Valley Civilisation

The oldest civilisation of India is the Indus Valley civilisation.

The excavations first started in the year 1921, in Harappa in Punjab. Hence, the Indus valley civilisation is also called the Harappan civilisation.

The Indus Valley civilisation started around four to five thousand years ago. The main cities of the Indus Valley civilisation were:

  • Lothal in the Indian state of Gujarat.
  • Rupar, in the Indian state of Punjab.
  • Kalibangan, in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
  • Mohenjo-Daro in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
  • Later on, the remains of the Indus Valley civilisation were found in Haryana and Rajasthan regions also. This means that the civilisation was not only in the Indus Valley but in other places too.

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