Minerals and Energy Resources of India

In our previous chapter, we have learned about the physical features of India, including the climates, landforms, types of soil, forests, biodiversity, etc. In this chapter, we will be learning about mineral and energy resources.

Mineral Resources

  • The resources obtained from deep inside the ground are called mineral resources.
  • The mineral is defined as the naturally formed substances present within the Earth. Minerals are typically solid, inorganic substances formed by natural geological processes.

There are two types of minerals – metallic minerals and non-metallic minerals:

Metallic Mineral

Metallic minerals are those from which metals like iron, aluminium, etc., are obtained.

Metallic minerals are of two types:

Metallic Ferrous Minerals

  • These metallic minerals comprise iron content within them.
  • Iron ore, manganese ore, nickel are examples of metallic ferrous minerals.
  • Iron ore reserves are present in almost all the states of India.

Metallic Non-Ferrous Minerals

  • These metallic minerals do not comprise any iron content within them.
  • Bauxite is the most important metallic non-ferrous mineral.

Non-Metallic Mineral

  • Non-metallic minerals are those which do not contain any metal content.
  • Mica, limestone are examples of non-metallic minerals.
  • India is the largest producer of mica, and it produces 60% of the world’s mica.

Energy Resources

The different sources from which we obtain energy for various actions are energy resources. We consume energy in different forms to carry out our day-to-day activities.

The available energy is divided into two main categories:

Traditional Energy

  • Traditional energy resources are the sources of energy obtained from fossil fuels.
  • The received energy is limited and gets reduced gradually.
  • Coal, electric energy, petroleum, nuclear power, and natural gas are a few examples of traditional energy sources.

Non-Traditional Energy

  • Non-traditional energy resources are the sources of energy obtained from natural resources.
  • The received energy is unlimited, environment friendly and cannot be exhausted.
  • Sun, wind, tidal waves of oceans, waterfalls and organic wastes are a few examples of non-traditional energy sources.

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