Means of Transportation and Communication

Both transport and communication play an essential role in developing our country.

Transportation helps us travel and move goods from one place to another.

The use of transportation depends upon our need to move things from the place of their availability to the place of their use.

Means of Transport

Transport is known as the lifeline of our country.

We, humans, use various modes of transport to travel and move goods from one place to another. This is done with the help of different means of transportation, such as trucks, lorry, containers, buses, rail, aeroplanes and ships.

The four primary means of transport are roadways, railways, waterways and airways.


  • Roadways are the oldest means of transport.
  • The means of road transport are cycle, rickshaw, bus, truck, car, scooter, motorcycle, bullock cart, tonga or tanga, camel cart, etc.
  • Roadways are helpful in the transportation of raw materials, goods and they are connected to far off places. Roadways are available in small villages, as well as in plains, mountains, etc.
  • Our country has a dense grid of roadways, and the total area of the road network is about 33 lakh kilometres.

Roadways are divided into:

National Highways

  • These roadways connect the state capitals, major cities, and ports.
  • Altogether there are 77 national highways, and their total length is 70,935 km.

State Highways

  • These roadways connect the district headquarters with the main cities.
  • The State Government maintains the state highways.

District Highways

  • These roadways are also called the local roadways.
  • These roadways are respective for districts and villages.
  • They connect or link the towns with the district headquarters.
  • The district highways are maintained by the PWD department or the district administration.

Village Roads

  • These roadways connect with other villages, and to the main roads of the district or the cities.
  • The village panchayats or district panchayats maintain the village roadways.


  • In India, Railways was first started in 1853.
  • The first railway track was built from Mumbai to Thane.
  • Indian rail transport is the biggest in Asia and second in the world.
  • Compared to roads and other means of transportation, railways are cheaper.
  • Most people travel and carry their goods through rail- transport in the world.

Based on the width of the railway tracks, it has been classified into three categories.

  • Broad Gauge
  • Metre Gauge
  • Narrow Gauge


  • The water transport started before road and rail transport.
  • It is comparatively less expensive than rail and road transport.
  • An important role is played by water transport in foreign trades.
  • About 90 to 92 per cent of Indian foreign business is done through water transport.

The Indian water transport is divided into two categories:

Inland waterways

  • Inland waterways are also called the National Waterways.
  • Boats, motorboats and launches, are the source of transport systems used in inland waterways.
  • This type of water transport uses major rivers and canals to transport people and goods.
  • The waterways transport goods from one place to another inside a landmass.

Marine waterways

  • Steamers and ships are the sources of transport systems used in marine waterways.
  • This type of water transport uses oceans and seas to transport people and goods from one country to another.
  • Harbours are where big ships stop, and cargo is loaded and unloaded.
  • India has 92 shipping companies and 12 big ports and harbours.


  • Airways are the fastest means of transport.
  • Aeroplanes and helicopters are the sources of transport systems used in Airways.
  • Air transport is the primary mode of high-speed transport. The Wright Brothers introduced the first flying machine in 1903.

In 1953, airways got nationalised, and all airline companies were classified into two corporations, Indian Airlines and Air India.

There are twelve international airports in India and more than 20 national airports.

Means of Communication

Communication is a process that involves sending and receiving messages through verbal and non-verbal methods.

The various means of communication available to us are telephone, wireless, mobile phones, internet, etc.

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