According to the Census Act 1948, for every ten years, the census is conducted in India to count the total population in our country.
The last census was conducted in the previous year in 2021, and the next census will take place in 2031.
In terms of population, India ranks in second position.
The government takes various measures in India to reduce the speed of population explosion.
In this chapter, let us learn more about population, population explosion, effects of increasing population and various measures taken to control population growth.
What is Population?
A group of all living organisms of a particular species existing in a specific geographical area, at one particular time with the capability of interbreeding, is called population.
According to the 2021 census, the current population of India is 1.4 billion.
What is Population Explosion?
A rapid increase in the population is known as a population explosion.
The two causes of population explosion are:
- Increase in the birth rate.
- Decrease in the death rate.
An increase in population is directly related to the birth rate. The population in India is rising at a considerable speed, which results in various problems, including social, economic and environmental.
Effects of Increasing Population
Increasing population has many adverse effects on our environment.
Listed below are the significant effects of increasing population:
- Increase in slum areas.
- Rise in unemployment and underemployment.
- Eradicating poverty and hunger becomes more difficult.
- Providing better health and education facilities becomes more difficult.
- This can lead to less availability of land, water, food and other necessary resources.
- An increase in population may lead to the unavailability of food grains due to the excessive demands of people.
- Overexploitation of water and other natural resources results in no scope of replenishment, which is a recipe for a natural disaster.
- Increasing population increases air and water pollution, leading to an increase in diseases, which ultimately leads to a rise in expenditure on healthcare.
Measures to Control the Population Explosion
Control measures can be broadly classified into the direct method and indirect method.
The direct method includes:
- Focus on family planning measures.
- Providing free education and advice to the people.
- Strictly follow the minimum age criteria of marriage.
The indirect method includes:
- Female empowerment.
- Improvement in quality of life.
- Positive attitudes towards women’s rights in sexual relationships.
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