Nutrition is the basis of life. Organisms get different types of nutrients from their surrounding atmosphere. These products by the process of digestion become part of the body and fulfil its different requirements. For maintaining good health, a balanced diet is required. A balanced diet makes the body strong, and it helps to increase the immunity power to fight against diseases. It also helps to make the mind sharp and healthy.
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 1: Food and Human Health help students in finding the answers to all questions mentioned in the textbook. The subject experts provide these solutions for students to help them understand the problem-solving methods easily. These answers are written from the exam viewpoint such that students can understand the way of writing answers in the exams. Doing so will benefit them in fetching more marks.
You can also get all subjects Class 10 solutions for Rajasthan Board here.
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 1: Objective Textbook Questions and Solutions
Q1. Casual Agent of dracunculiasis disease is
Q2. How much is the normal blood pressure of healthy body?
(A) 120/80 mm Hg
(B) 100/60 mm Hg
(C) 140/100 mm Hg
(D) None of these
Q3. Tobacco belongs to which family?
Q4. Main ingredient of alcohol is?
Q5. Which disease is caused by the deficiency of iodine?
(A) Night blindness
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 1: Very Short Answer Type Questions and Solutions
Q6. Write the scientific name of opium plant?
Answer: The scientific name of opium plant is Papaver somniferum.
Q7. What is the reason for fatty liver disease?
Answer: Alcohol is the reason for fatty liver disease.
Q8. Which is the harmful ingredient found in tobacco?
Answer: Nicotine is the harmful ingredient found in tobacco.
Q9. Write the name of the blood pressure measuring instrument?
Answer: Sphygmomanometer is the instrument used to measure blood pressure.
Q10. Write the name of the causing agent of dracunculiasis?
Answer: Dracunculus medinensis.
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 1: Short Answer Type Questions and Solutions
Q11. What do you mean by balanced diet and malnutrition?
Answer: Balanced diet is one that contains all the essential nutrients. Deficiency or unavailability of any of the nutrients makes the diet unbalanced. If one or more nutrients are unavailable for a long period of time, then it is called malnutrition.
Q12. What are the harmful effects of protein deficiency on human body?
Answer: Deficiency of protein causes kwashiorkor disease. In this disease, child’s stomach swells, loses appetite, behaviour becomes irritative, skin becomes pale, black, dry, spoty and starts rupturing.
Q13. What should be the qualities of drinking water?
Answer: The qualities of drinking water are as follows:
- Drinking water should be colourless and odorless.
- Water should have an adequate amount of dissolved oxygen.
- It should contain the right balance of minerals.
- It should have visible particles and pH of water should be balanced.
Q14. Write down the harmful effects of contaminated water?
Answer: Drinking contaminated water can cause diseases such as cholera, dysentery, jaundice, hepatitis, etc. Dracunculus medinensis was once a serious problem in Rajasthan. The female always lays egg inside water out of the host (human) body. This disease spreads to other people, if the contaminated water is used for drinking.
Q15. Which alkaloids are present in opium milk?
Answer: The alkaloids present in opium milk are Morphine, Codeine, Nicotine, Somniferin, Papaverin, etc.
Q16. Write the harmful effects of tobacco?
Answer: The harmful effects of tobacco are as follows:
- Chances of mouth, tongue, throat cancer increases by the regular use of tobacco.
- Nicotine present in tobacco thickens the walls of arteries, due to which the blood pressure and heartbeat increases.
- The rate of embryo development slows down if tobacco is used by pregnant women during pregnancy period.
- Carbon monoxide present in cigarette’s smoke damages red blood cells and affects the oxygen transporting capability of the blood.
Q17. Write down the symptoms and reasons of submucous fibrosis.
Answer: The symptoms of submucous fibrosis are muscles of the jaws become hard and the jaws will not open properly. The causes are chewing gutkha which is a mixture of betel nut, lime, catechu and some flavouring agents.
Q18. Define blood pressure and its signs and symptoms?
Answer: Blood pressure is generally defined as the force or the pressure of blood cells against the walls of the arteries during the circulation. This pressure decreases progressively with distance from the left ventricle.
There are two types of Blood pressure:
- Low Blood pressure, also called Hypotension. It is the sign of an underlying problem and the blood reading on the sphygmomanometer falls less than 90/60 mm Hg.
- High Blood pressure, also called as Hypertension. It is the sign of an increased problem, where there is more pressure of blood cells during blood circulation. The blood reading on the sphygmomanometer falls more than 140/90 mm Hg.
The symptoms of Blood pressure usually vary with its types.
The common symptoms of Hypotension include:
- Increased thirst.
- Vision problems.
- Lack of concentration.
The common symptoms of Hypertension include:
- Chest pain.
- Heart disease
- Nose Bleeding.
- Kidney failure
- Severe headaches.
- Heart or Brain Stroke in the most severe cases.
Q19. Discuss the harmful effects of alcohol?
Answer: The harmful effects of alcohol are:
- Immediate physical effects might result in extreme rough behavior. However, very high dosage might lead to death in extreme cases.
- A person commonly becomes dull, antisocial, depressed, tired, aggressive, etc.
- Alcohol usage ultimately leads to failure of vital organs like liver and kidneys.
Q20. Discuss the importance of water for our body?
Answer: The importance of water for our body are as follows:
- Insufficient water content in the human body results in severe dehydration, which is often accompanied by kidney failure, seizures, and swelling in the brain.
- Water helps improve the circulation of oxygen throughout the body.
- It also plays a crucial role in the digestion of food.
- Water is a very important component of saliva, which helps break down food.
- The excretion of waste in the human body requires water. Insufficient water levels in the body may increase the strain on the kidneys, resulting in the formation of kidney stones.
Q21. Describe misuse of some medicines?
Answer: Morphene, diazepam, nitrazepam, buprinorphin, pathadene, codeine, etc. are some medicines which can cause sedation, if taken in higher dose. Many medicine sellers often sell these medicines without prescription. Many young people consume these medicines daily
Q22. Write a short note on marasmus and its symptoms and causes.
Answer: Marasmus can be defined as a form of nutrition deficiency disorder, usually occurring in children. It can be life-threatening if not diagnosed at an early stage.
Causes of Marasmus
As mentioned above, it is a nutrition deficiency disease and is mainly caused by:
- a severe deficiency of protein, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, and lipids.
- Viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections are also a major cause for this disorder.
- Children, older adults, and people with a weak immune system are more prone to marasmus.
Other causes of marasmus include:
- Famine or unavailability of food
- Lack of education about nutritional requirements.
- Intake of medicines that interfere with the absorption of nutrients.
Symptoms of Marasmus
The symptoms of marasmus are more common to the symptoms of kwashiorkor, which includes:
- Weight loss.
- Lack of energy
- Stunted growth.
- Chronic Diarrhoea.
- Shrinkage of Stomach.
- Respiratory infections.
- Dry skin and brittle hair.
- Underweight or loss of muscle mass and subcutaneous fat.
Q23. How can we conserve water?
Answer: Conservation of water mainly refers to protect, preserve and control the usage of water and its resources. It is the system introduced to manage freshwater, reduce wastage and protect the water and its resources in order to reduce and to avoid scarcity.
Conserving water helps us by supplying more water for longer usage. It has become necessary in all areas because these natural resources are reducing along with the increasing population and their usages.
There are several ways to conserve water. Here are some important and easy ways for the conservation of water
- Keeping the tap closed when not in use.
- Check for the openings or leaks in water distribution pipes.
- Make sure to use collected rainwater for gardening or washing purposes.
- Always have a measure of how many buckets of water is wasted in a day and try to reduce.
- Do not run more water than necessary while washing and cleaning clothes, utensils, etc.
- Do not prolong your bathing. Go for a quick shower rather than wasting buckets of water
- Rainwater harvesting is one of the best methods used for conserving water. There are different methods used to preserve rainwater instead of getting it wasted.
Q24. Define nutrition and types of it?
Answer: Nutrients are the compounds in food that provide us with energy that facilitates repair and growth and helps to carry out different life processes.
Types of Nutrients
In general, there are two types of nutrients
Above nutrients could be obtained from the environment. Macronutrients provide energy to a living being for the function of the metabolic system. They provide massive energy as it is converted to obtain energy. Macronutrients include fats, proteins and carbohydrates.
Micronutrient provides essential components for metabolism to be carried out. They also build and repair damaged tissues in order to control the body process. Micronutrients include calcium, iron, vitamins, iron, minerals and vitamin C.
Q25. What is a balanced diet and benefits of eating a balanced diet?
Answer: A balanced diet could be simply defined as the food that gives the body the nutrients it needs to function properly. In order to avail truly balanced nutrition, one must obtain the major share of the daily calories from fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains and lean proteins.
Calories are a measure of units of energy.
The benefits of eating a balanced diet are:
- For a healthy weight and energy balance.
- To provide essential nutrients required for proper functioning and maintenance of cells, tissues and organs of our body.
- Limited consumption of saturated fats, processed foods, junk foods, simple sugar, iodized salt, sodium, etc.
- Include a high amount of fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts and whole grains.
- To avoid malnourishment and other nutritional deficiency diseases.
Q26. Write the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure?
|Types||Systolic blood pressure||Diastolic blood pressure|
|Definition||The amount of pressure exerts on the arteries and blood vessels.||The pressure which is exerted on the walls of the arteries.|
|Normal Range||In infants -95mmHg. In adults- 90-120 mmHg. Age 6 – 9 –100 mmHg.||In infants–65 mm Hg. In adults– 60-80 mmHg. Age 6 – 9 — 65 mmHg.|
|Ventricles of the Heart||Left ventricles contract||Fill with blood|
|Reading of Blood Pressure||The higher number is systolic pressure.||The lower number is the diastolic pressure.|
|Blood pressure inside the arteries||Maximum||Minimum.|
|Associated with the age||Increases with the individual’s age||Decreases with the individual’s age|
|Occurs||Systolic stage occurs when the left ventricle gets contracted.||Diastolic stage occurs when the left ventricle gets relaxed.|
Q27. What do you understand about addictive substances. Explain briefly about three addictive substances.
Answer: Addictive substances are those substances which have some properties that people become addicted to. These substances are very harmful for bodies. Some addictive substances are given below:
Gutkha is a mixture of betel nut, lime, catech and some flavoring agents. People often mix with tobacco and have it.
Alcohol is highly addictive. Ethanol and ethyl alcohol is used in different ratios in different alcoholic beverages.
Tobacco can be consumed in a variety of ways. Some people use tobacco for smoking, some chew it. Both gutka and tobacco cause mouth cancer. It also causes lung cancer.
Q28. Mention some intoxicant substances popular among youngsters.
Answer: Cocaine, cannabis, charas, hemp, hasis, LSD, etc are intoxicants in trend. Young people start to use these for many reasons or get caught in this. Distance from family, increased criminal tendency, physical and mental weakness are the harmful side effects of using these products.
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 1: Essay Type Questions and Solutions
Q29. What is kwashiorkor disease? Write the symptoms and prevention measures.
Answer: Due to poverty, people are unable to add protein in adequate amount in their food and become victims of Malnutrition. Mostly, small children are affected by it. Protein is an important ingredient for pregnant women and adolescents. Deficiency of protein causes kwashiorkor disease. In this disease, child’s stomach swells, loses appetite, behaviour becomes irritative, skin becomes pale, black, dry, spoty and starts rupturing.
The symptoms and preventions measures are:
- Change in skin and hair colour and texture
- Loss of weight
- Swelling (oedema) of the ankles, feet, and belly
- Compromised immune system
- Failure to gain muscle mass
Food with more proteins and more calories can treat Kwashiorkor. Long term vitamin and mineral supplements are advised by the doctors. Calories need to be increased slowly because the patient’s diet lacked any significant nutrition for a long period. If there is a delay in the treatment, the child might stay with permanent physical and mental disabilities. If the condition is not treated, it might turn fatal.
Q30. How can we prevent the practice of opium in society?
Answer: We can prevent the practice of opium by taking following steps:
We should create awareness campaign of the harmful effects of opium in villages and towns.
Strict actions should be taken against those who try to sell opium products illegally.
Opium products sale and distributions should be under strict control and vigilance.
There should be proper rehabilitation programmes for addicted people.
Q31. Write the name of diseases and symptoms caused by vitamin deficiency?
Answer: The names of diseases and symptoms caused by vitamin deficiency are as follows:
|Sl No||Vitamin||Disease due to deficiency||Symptoms of the disease|
|1||Vitamin A||Night blindness||Unable to see at night or in light|
|2||Thiamine (B1)||Beri Beri||Low heart beat, weakness in muscles and nerves|
|3||Riboflavin (B2)||Riboflavinosis||Rupturing around mouth linings and skin of lips and memory loss|
|4||Niacin (B3)||Pellagra||Appearances of dry scales on tongue and skin|
|5||Ascorbic Acid (C)||Scurvy||Bleeding from gums, appearances of spots on the skin|
|6||Calciferol (D)||Rickets||Bones of leg bends, inward bending of knees.|
Q32. Describe the harmful effects of cold drinks on our body?
Answer: The harmful effects of cold drinks on our body are as follows:
- The chemicals like lindane, melethian and chlorpyriphom mixed in cold drinks are considered responsible for cancer, nervous, reproductive diseases and damages the immune system.
- During the manufacturing of the cold drinks phosphoric acid is mixed in it, which directly affects the teeth, it has the capacity to even dissolve the iron.
- The chemical ethylene glycol mixed in it does not allow the water to freeze even at zero degree, commonly it is called “Sweet Poison”.
- Boric, erithorbic and benzoic acid collectively increases the acidity of cold drinks, which causes burn in stomach, indigestion sensation in brain, irritability and acidity.
- It also hinders the development of bone.
- 0.44 pps lead mixed in cold drink which is hazardous for brain liver and muscles.
- Caffeine mixed in it causes insomnia and headache.
Q33. Write an article on adulteration in food products.
Answer: Food Adulteration can be defined as the practice of adulterating food or contamination of food materials by adding a few substances which are collectively called the adulterants.
Adulterants are the substance or poor quality products added to food items for economic and technical benefits. Addition of these adulterants reduces the value of nutrients in food and also contaminates the food, which is not fit for consumption. These adulterants can be available in all food products which we consume daily, including dairy products, cereals, pulses, grains, meat, vegetables, fruits, oils, beverages etc.
Why is Food Adulteration done?
The process of contaminating food or adding to the food components is a common phenomenon in developing countries. For instance: Milk can be diluted by adding water to increase its quantity and starch powder is often added to increase its solid content.
Listed below are the main reasons for adulterating food products:
- Practised as a part of the business strategy.
- An imitation of some other food substance.
- Lack of knowledge of proper food consumption.
- To increase the quantity of food production and sales.
- Increased food demand for a rapidly growing population.
- To make maximum profit from food items by fewer investments.
Methods of Food Adulteration
Here is a list of most common adulterants which have been added
- Adding certain chemicals for faster ripening of fruits.
- Mixing of decomposed fruits and vegetables with the good ones.
- Adding certain natural and chemical dyes to attract consumers.
- Mixing of clay, pebbles, stones, sand, and marble chips, to the grains, pulses and other crops.
- Cheaper and inferior substances are added wholly or partially with the good ones to increase the weight or nature of the product.
Q34. Explain the losses due to minerals malnutrition.
Answer: The losses due to minerals malnutrition are as follows.
|Sl No||Name of the Element||Main Sources||Important Function|
|1||Sodium||Common salt, fish, mear, egg, milk||Contraction of muscles, transmission of neural charges, electrolysis of body, maintaining balance|
|2||Potassium||All food products||Control of muscles, transmission of neural charges, electrolysis of body, operates different cellular reactions|
|3||Calcium||Milk, egg, green vegetables||Makes bones and teeth strong along with Vitamin D|
|4||Phosphorus||Milk, green vegetable, pearl millet, finger millet, dry fruits, liver and kidney||Makes bones and teeth strong along with calcium|
|5||Iron||Liver, kidney, egg, meat, pearl millet, finger millet, curd, vegetables, carrot, jaggery||Formation of hemoglobin, oxidation of tissues|
|6||Iodine||Salt, sea food, green leafy vegetables, sea fish, black berry, rock salt||Formation of thyroxine hormone.|
Q35. What is Hypertension? Explain its causes and symptoms of hypertension.
Answer: An abnormally high blood pressure and a combination of high psychological stress are known as Hypertension. These patients suffering from this disorder will have their blood pressure reading greater than 140 over 90 mm.
Hypertension is diagnosed by measuring blood pressure. The Systolic pressure would be the first readings viz. a pressure by which the heart pumps blood through the body, and second readings would be the Diastolic pressure, meaning a pressure at which the heart relaxes and refills the blood.
Types of Hypertension
When people talk about hypertension, they are usually referring to one of the two types, namely:
- Primary hypertension
- Secondary hypertension
Primary hypertension is also known as essential hypertension. This is the most prevalent form of hypertension and it has no identifiable cause.
Secondary hypertension is caused by an underlying disease or even medication. Thyroid dysfunction, sleep apnea and diabetes have been linked to secondary hypertension. Chemicals such as amphetamines, antidepressants and even caffeine can lead to hypertension.
Causes of Hypertension
Acute stress and unfavorable environmental factors are the main factors for increasing blood pressure in normal and healthy individuals. The increasing rate of the prevailing condition is mostly blamed on the lifestyle and dietary factors such as inactive habits, high diet sodium content from processed fatty foods, tobacco and alcohol use.
Symptoms of Hypertension
- High blood pressure is itself asymptomatic, that means there is no indication or any clear symptoms. This is the reason why high blood pressure is also referred to as ‘the silent killer’ since it could cause damage to the Cardiovascular system.
- High blood pressure could also create problems in certain organs. A prolonged illness may lead to complications such as arteriosclerosis, where the production of plaques narrows the blood vessels.
- A systolic blood pressure readings of 180 mmHg or above and a diastolic blood pressure readings of 110 mmHg or above could indicate the signs of hypertensive crisis that requires immediate medical attention.
Q36. What are the common symptoms of Hypotension?
Answer: The common symptoms of Hypotension include:
- Increased thirst.
- Vision problems.
- Lack of concentration.
Q37. Define Malnutrition and types of malnutrition.
Answer: Malnutrition also called malnourishment is a condition resulting from eating a diet that contains either insufficient or too much of nutrients as a result of which health problems ensue. The nutrients involved are calories, carbohydrates, vitamins, proteins or minerals. Undernutrition during pregnancy, or before two years of age may cause permanent mental and physical development problems.
Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or nutrients. Malnutrition covers 2 different categories of conditions that are given below
- Undernutrition – This category covers stunting (low height for age), wasting (low weight for height), underweight (low weight for age) and micronutrient deficiencies (lack of important minerals)
- Others – This category consists of overweight, obesity, diet-related non-communicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer)
Q38. What is high blood pressure and low blood pressure?
Answer: Low Blood Pressure – It is when the blood pressure in your arteries and veins is abnormally low. When the blood pressure is extremely low then the oxygen and the nourishing food doesn’t reach the important organs like heart, brain and kidneys, thus these organs stop working properly and can damage the organs permanently.
High Blood Pressure – It is due to excessive pressure in arteries. It is caused by anxiety, anger, jealousy, confusion, eating more than needed. Consumption of white sugar, spices, oil, ghee, pickel, sweet, meat, tea, cigarette, alcohol sedentary life and absence of exercise. Timely diagnosis of high blood pressure is important.
Q39. What is Obesity? Give some reasons for obesity.
Answer: Obesity is that condition when excessive body fats get accumulated in the body to the extent that it starts to have harmful effects on health. This could reduce the potential age. Body Mass Index is the ratio of human weight and height. Obesity is associated with many diseases such as heart disease, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea, many types of cancer and osteoarthritis.
The important reason of obesity are:
- Obesity and weight gain is due to the imbalance between intake of energy and its use.
- Eating high fatty food, junk food, and synthetic food, less exercise, hypothyroidism, sedentary lifestyle, without proper physical work, fat starts to accumulate in the body.
Q40. How can Food Adulteration be prevented?
Answer: Here are certain safety tips to avoid Adulteration:
- Avoid dark coloured, junk and other processed foods.
- Make sure to clean and store all the grains, pulses and other food products.
- Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly in running water before it is used.
- Check if the seal is valid or not, before buying the food products like milk, oil, and other pouches.
- Always make sure to check and buy products having an FSSAI-validated label, along with the license number, list of ingredients, manufactured date, and its expiration.