Industry is the backbone of modern economy which provides large scale employment; on the other hand, production develops trade and economic factors which provide speed to modern economy. To score well in their Class 10 Social Science exam, students should build a strong foundation of the important topics from the very beginning. These RBSE Class 10 solutions of Social Science Chapter 11 contain detailed explanations of each question mentioned in the chapter. For students, these solutions prove to be appropriate study material while preparing for exams.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 11 Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q1. Which is the ancient evidence of iron and steel industry in India?
Answer: There have been evidences of cotton textile, earthen pots and bronze statues from the excavations in Indus valley Civilization and the rust resistant iron pillar near Qutubminar, which show industrial development in ancient India.
Q2. When and where was the first cotton textile mill established in India?
Answer: In India the first cotton textile mill was established in Fort Glostar (near Kolkata) in 1818 but the real beginning was with establishment of cotton textile industries at Mumbai in 1854.
Q3. What do you mean by manufacturing industries?
Answer: Manufacturing Industry is the process of transforming chemical and physical properties and increasing the value of materials obtained from agriculture and mining in multiple forms usable for human beings, e.g making cotton textile from cotton.
Q4. Where was the first iron and steel industry established in India?
Answer: In India, the first iron and steel industry was established at Porto-Nova in the year 1830.
Q5. In which districts of Rajasthan are cotton textile mills established?
Answer: Bhilwara, Udaipur, Kota, Ganganagar and Pali districts of Rajasthan where cotton textile mills were established.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 11 Short Answer Type Questions
Q6. Describe the development of cotton textile industry in India.
Answer: Cotton textile industry is an ancient industry of India. The industry was mentioned in the Indus valley civilization. This industry creates the highest employment opportunities. India is the second largest country after China in production of cotton textile.
The first modern textile industry in India was established in Fort Glaster of Kolkata in 1818 but this effort failed. The first Indian textile mill was established in Mumbai by Kawasji Dabur in 1854. It started production in 1856. By 1861 twelve mills had been established. By 1947, there were 417 mills in India in which 3 lakh workers were employed. At present, the number of these mills is more than 1200 in which about 40 lakh people have got direct employment. This industry contributes 40% in gross domestic production. The centralization of this industry is in cotton producing regions, places of cheap transportation, labour and moist climate. So it developed in states of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Rajasthan, etc.
Q7. Describe the development of iron and steel industry in India.
Answer: Iron and Steel industry is the pillar of industrial development not only in India but in the entire world. First iron and steel industry in India was established at Porto-Nova in the year 1830. After its failure, the first successful beginning was observed in the 20th century when in 1907 a plant, Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO), was established at Sankchi (Jamshedpur) by Jamshedji Tata. Later, Iron and Steel industries were established in the year 1919 in Bampur (IISCO) and Mysore and in 1923 in Bhadrawati (Karnataka). Later on, both Kulti and Hirapur plants were merged into Indian Iron and Steel Company. In this way the beginning of Iron and Steel industry took place in India in the 20th century.
After independence this industry was developed under various Five Year Plans. In the second five year plan, industries were established in Durgapur (West Bengal) with British aid, in Rourkela (Orissa) with German aid, in Bhilai (Chhattisgarh) with Russian aid. In the beginning, their capacity was 10 lakh tons which was later increased to 16 lakh tons. In third Five Year Plan a plant at Bokaro (Jharkhand) was established which is the largest plant in Asia. In 1973 Steel Authority of India (SAIL) was established for quality improvement and rapid development of this industry. It performs the administrative work of all the industries under public sector. Three more industrial units placed at Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh), Salem (Tamil Nadu) and Vijaynagar (Karnataka) were included under its administrative supervision. This industry is based on raw material and cheap transportation. That is why it is established near the mines for obtaining raw materials like coal, iron ore, manganese and cheap transportation. In 2015 India became the third largest country in wrought iron production in the world. India is the largest producer of direct reduced Iron (DRI) or sponge iron. India is also the third largest consumer of produced steel in the world after China and America. Steel sector contributes about 2% of India’s Gross Domestic Production and about 6 lakh people are employed in this sector.
Q8. Describe the development of cement industry in India.
Answer: Cement was invented by Joseph at Portland in England in 1824. That is the reason why cement used nowadays is called Portland cement. First cement plant in modern form was established at Chennai in Tamil Nadu in 1904 in which cement was made from sea-shells but the experiment proved a failure. The first Indian cement plant was established at Porbandar in Gujarat in 1912-13 by Indian Cement Company. In 1915 cement factories were established at Katni (M.P.) and in 1916 at Lakheri in Rajasthan by Killick Nixon Company. It is the second industry in this country from the production and employment point of view. India is at second place in the world in production after China. The centralization of this industry has been due to availability of raw material and cheap transportation, because one ton of cement needs 1.6 ton of limestone, 0.38 ton gypsum and 3.8 tons of coal and these are heavy materials. It has developed in the states such as Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, etc.
Q9. Describe the distribution of paper industry in India.
Answer: Paper industry is an ancient cottage industry of India. In this industry, pulp is made from waste of agriculture and trees and paper is made from it. 70% paper in India is made from sugarcane remains. Paper industry was established in Shrirampur (West Bengal). After this paper mills were established in Hooghly and Madras between 1810 and 1867 but this effort remained unsuccessful. The first paper mill in India was established in Lucknow in 1879 by the name of Indian Paper Mill. Titagarh paper mill was established in 1881. There were 17 paper mills in India at the time of Independence whose production capacity was 19000 tons. At present there are 800 small and large paper mills which produce 128 lakh ton of paper. 65% of this production is used as paper for newspapers and the rest is used for other purposes. The centralization of this industry is influenced by the availability of raw material and cheap transportation. The paper mills in different states are as follows –
Paper Industries in India
- Titagarh, Raniganj, Triveni and Kolkata in West Bengal.
- Mumbai, Puna, Chandrapur, Khapoli, Pimpri, and Kampti in Maharashtra.
- Lucknow, Meerut, Saharanpur, Mujafarnagar, Pantragar and Basti in Uttar Pradesh.
- Bhopal, Rewa, Hosangabad and Kamalai in Madhya Pradesh
- Bhadrawati, Banglore, Ramnagar and Krishnarajasagar in Karnataka
- Surat, Vapi, Vadodara and Rajkot in Gujarat.
Due to high local demand, most of the paper is consumed in the country and it has also to be imported from other countries.
Q10. Describe the development of cement industry in Rajasthan.
Answer: In India, Rajasthan stands leading in cement production. Cement industry in Rajasthan was started in 1916 in Lakheri. This Industry has centralized in single belt in Nimbahera, Chittorgarh, Kota, Bundi and Swaimadhopur. Apart from this there are also units of cement plants at Alwar, Nagaur, Pali and Sirohi. There are 18 large, 5 medium and 130 small units in the state. There are six large scale cement factories in Chittorgarh so it is called the ‘Cement City’ of the state. 16% of total cement production of the country is taken from Rajasthan. 90% portland cement and 10% white cement is produced in the state. This is how the cement industry developed in India.