India is an agricultural country where 48.9% of its total population depends directly upon agriculture, and we get 13.7% of total domestic production from agriculture. Agriculture in India is practiced mainly to earn livelihood in which farmer grows food crops for personal use on his land by using traditional methods. The solutions of RBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 9 provided in this article contains all the questions from the chapter Agriculture in India. Students can take help of RBSE Class 10 solutions of Social Science Chapter 9 to cross-check their answers and rectify their mistakes. This will help them to avoid repeating the same mistakes.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 9 Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q1. In how many forms is Indian agriculture divided on the basis of seasons?
Answer: Indian agriculture has been divided into three categories on the basis of various seasons:
- Kharif crop
- Rabi crop
- Zayad crop
Q2. Which crops in India are known as garden crops?
Answer: Garden Crops include fruits and vegetables.
Q3. What do you mean by cash crops?
Answer: Crops that are primarily grown to be sold in the market are called cash crops. Cash crops in India are grown in one-fourth part of total agricultural land. These crops are not only the source of income for farmers but also provide raw material to the industries. Sugarcane, cotton, oilseed, jute and tobacco are major commercial crops.
Q4. How many crops of rice are grown in India?
Answer: Three crops of rice are grown in a year Aman (during winter), ous (during autumn) and boro (during summer).
Q5. In which districts is dry farming practised?
Answer: Dry farming is practised in district of eastern Rajasthan.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 9 Short Answer Type Questions: Textbook Important Questions and Solutions
Q6. Describe the maize crop.
Answer: Maize is a food crop as well as a commercial crop which provides raw material for industries manufacturing starch and glucose. It is second major kharif crop after rice in India. It was brought to India by the Portugese in the 17th century. Maize needs temperature between 12 and 35 and rainfall between 50 and 100 cm. It requires deep soil with nitrogen where water is drained easily, 60% of maize in country is grown in Andhra Pradesh (19.3%) Karnataka (16.78%), Rajasthan (10.34%), Uttar Pradesh (10%), Gujarat (7%), Madhya Pradesh and Punjab. Maize in Rajasthan is grown in Kota, Bundi, Baran, Jhalawar, Udaipur, Dungarpur, Banswara, Chittore, Ajmer, Ganganagar and Hanumangarh.
Q7. Mention the contribution of mustard in oil seed crops.
Answer: India produces about 70% mustard of the world and 35% of total oilseed production of the country is taken from mustard only. About 85% of mustard is grown in northern India. Rajasthan is ranked first in mustard production in India and it produces 41% mustard of the country. It is also grown in Uttar Pradesh (second), Madhya Pradesh (third), Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana. In Rajasthan, it is grown in Alwar, Bharatpur, Jaipur, Hanumangarah, Gangnagar, Swaimadhopur, Bhilwara, Bikaner and irrigated areas of Rajasthan canal.
Q8. Describe the contribution of cotton as a cash crop.
Answer: Since ancient times, Indians had knowledge of making cotton textile from cotton. Cotton is grown on 6.7% part of total agricultural land. Cotton in India is grown in Kharif season. It needs temperature between 20oC and 35oC and rainfall between 75 and 100 cm. Deep black soil with lime and potash is considered suitable for cotton. Three varieties of cotton are grown in India:-
- Long and thin fiber cotton (American cotton): In India, 50% of total production of cotton is of this type only. This is grown in Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
- Medium fiber cotton: In India, 40% of total production of cotton is of this quality only. It is grown in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
- Short fiber cotton: It is 10% of total production of cotton and is grown in small quantity in almost all the states of the country.
In area and production of cotton Gujarat stands at first position, Maharashtra second and Andhra Pradesh is at third place. Punjab and Haryana are also important cotton producing states. Production of cotton is less than demand so India imports cotton from America, Sudan, Kenya and Egypt. In Rajasthan, cotton is grown in Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Bikaner, Kota, Bundi, and Jhalawar.
Q9. Describe millet crop
Answer: In India, Bajra is an important food crop in millet category after Jowar. It is grown in warm and dry climate between June and October and it is a Kharif crop. Bajra is sown in the areas of temperature between 25oC and 35oC and rainfall less than 50 cm. and light soil with proper water drainage. It can also be grown in all types of soils. Out of the total Bajra production in the country 85% is grown in Rajasthan (42%), Maharashtra (20%), Gujarat (12.5%) and in Uttar Pradesh (11%) and rest in other states like Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and Punjab. In Rajasthan, Bajra is grown in Jaipur, Barmer, Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Sikar, Ganganagar, Jhunjhunu, Alwar, Jaipur and Jalore districts. India is at first place in bajra production in the world.
Q10. Describe the role of agriculture in Indian economy.
Answer: The role of agriculture in Indian economy are as follows:
A Source of Employment
Agriculture directly provides employment to 56.6% population in India. It also provides indirect employment to agriculture based occupations like animal husbandry, fish farming, and forestry. It also provides raw material to industries, which is an indirect source of livelihood for a large population.
Contribution in Gross Domestic Production
There has been great contribution of agriculture and its allied activities in gross domestic production in India. It was 55.11% on prices of 1993-94 in 1951 which reduced to 44.26% in 1990. During 2007-08. It was 17.8% on prices of 1999-2000 and it reduced to 15.35% on prices of 2011-12 in 2015-16. The reason for this downfall was rapid industrial development in secondary and tertiary sectors.
Contribution in Foreign Trade
India contributes 2.07% in export of agriculture production in the world. India is the tenth largest country in the world in export of agriculture production. It is the fourth biggest sector of total export. It exports products like tea, sugar, oilseed, tobacco, spices, fresh fruits and basmati.
Agriculture products like jute textile, poultry whereas food grains and edible oil are included in imports.
Supply of Raw Material for the Industries
Various agriculture based industries like textile industry, sugar industry, vegetable oil industry, jute industry, rubber industry and spice industry get their raw material from agriculture.
Market for Industrial Products
60% of the population of India resides in rural areas which is dependent on agriculture. This sector provides a market for agricultural equipment like tractor harvesters, cultivation equipment, fertilizer and pesticides.
Indian agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy. It is also a source of income and employment. Production falls due to dependence of agriculture on monsoon, which is indefinite and irregular with havoc of flood and droughts. If we want to develop agriculture in India, we will have to change the ancient way of its production. We will have to remove illiteracy and abolish poverty, only then will the development of agriculture and the condition of farmers improve.