RBSE Solutions For Class 12 Biology Chapter 1: Reproduction in Angiospermic Plants | Textbook Important Questions & Answers

RBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 1- Reproduction in Angiosperms provide complete information related to the sexual and asexual method of reproduction in flowering plants or Angiosperms. These important questions help students to enhance their conceptual knowledge and are completely prepared from the exam point of view and help students to revise the entire chapter.

The Rajasthan Board Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 important questions help students by providing a strategy to prepare for various board examinations and also for medical exams like NEET, AIIMS, etc. By practising these important questions, students can gain in-depth knowledge about the topic.

RBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Important Questions

RBSE Biology Chapter 1: MCQs Type Questions

Q.1.A flower is a modified________.

(a)Root.

(b)Leaves.

(c)Shoot.

(d)All of the above.

Sol: (c) Shoot.

Q.2.In angiosperms sexual reproduction takes place through________.

(a)Root.

(b)Leaves.

(c)Stem.

(d)Flower.

Sol: (d) Flower.

Q.3.Which of the following is not the method of natural vegetative propagation?

(a)By Roots.

(b)By Layering.

(c)By leaves.

(d)By Stem.

Sol: (b) By Layering.

Q.4 Which of the following statements are true?

(a)A flower constituting both androecium and gynoecium is called unisexual flower.

(b)A flower constituting both androecium and gynoecium is called a complete flower.

(c)A flower constituting both androecium and gynoecium is called bisexual flower.

(d)A flower constituting both androecium and gynoecium is called an incomplete flower.

Sol: (c) A flower constituting both androecium and gynoecium is called bisexual flower.

Q.5. The innermost whorl of a flower is known as _____________.

(a) Carpels.

(b) Pedicel.

(c) Corolla.

(d) Stamen.

Sol:(a) Carpels.

Q.6. Which of the following refers to the post-fertilisation event in angiosperms?

(a) Formation of flowers.

(b) Embryo development.

(c) Transfer of pollen grains.

(d) Formation of pollen grains.

Sol: (b) Embryo development.

Q.7.The transfer of pollen from stamen to the pistil of the same flower is called ______.

(a) Pollination.

(b) Self-pollination.

(c) Cross-pollination.

(d) Fertilization.

Sol: (b) Self-pollination.

Q.8. The phenomenon of developing ovary develops into a fruit without fertilisation is called _____________.

(a) Apomixis.

(b) Sexual reproduction.

(c) Asexual reproduction.

(d) Parthenocarpy.

Sol: (d) Parthenocarpy.

Q.9. The formation of megaspores inside the ovules of seed plants is called _________.

(a)Pollination.

(b)Parthenocarpy.

(c)Megasporogenesis.

(d)Vegetative propagation.

Sol: (c) Megasporogenesis.

Q.10.Which of the following is an example of a complete flower?

(a) Hibiscus.

(b) Sweet corn.

(c) Papaya.

(d) Bottle gourd.

Sol: (a) Hibiscus.

Q.11. Which parts of pistil develop into fruit and seeds?

(a) Ovaries and Ovules.

(b) Style and ovary.

(c) Stigma and Style

(d) Stigma and ovary.

Sol: (a) Ovaries and Ovules.

Q.12. _____________ is an example of a water pollinated plant.

(a) Alder.

(b) Bread wheat.

(c) Hydrilla.

(d) Bauhinia megalandra.

Sol: (c) Hydrilla.

Q.13. Garlic, Corn and onions are examples of _____________

(a) Artificial Vegetative propagation.

(b) Vegetative propagation by roots.

(c) Vegetative propagation by stem.

(d) Natural Vegetative propagation.

Sol: (d) Natural Vegetative propagation.

Q.14. Which of the following is an example of stem cutting- an artificial method of vegetative propagation?

(a) Mango.

(b) Lemon.

(c) Jasmine.

(d) Sugarcane.

Sol: (d) Sugarcane.

Q.15. How many parts does a complete flower have?

(a) Four.

(b) Six.

(c) Five.

(d) Three.

Sol: (a) Four.

Q.16. Which of the following statements are true?

(a) The ovule becomes the seed and the ovary becomes the fruit.

(b) The ovary becomes the seed and the ovary becomes the fruit.

(c) The stigma becomes the seed and the ovary becomes the fruit.

(d) The pollen grains become the seed and the ovary becomes the fruit.

Sol: (a) The ovule becomes the seed and the ovary becomes the fruit.

Q.17. Which of the following is an example of a Bat – Pollinated flower?

(a) Vallisneria.

(b) Tape grass.

(c) Hydrilla.

(d) Bauhinia megalandra.

Sol: (d) Bauhinia megalandra.

Q.18. Which part of the plant is not used for the vegetative propagation?

(a) Flower.

(b) Seeds.

(c) Roots.

(d) Leaves

Sol: (d) Leaves

Q.19.Which of the following statements are true?

(a) Ovule plays a vital role in sexual reproduction.

(b) Style plays a vital role in sexual reproduction.

(c) Stigma plays a vital role in sexual reproduction.

(d) All of the above.

Sol: (a) Ovule plays a vital role in sexual reproduction.

Q.20. The stalk of the ovule connecting an ovule or a seed with the placenta is called _____________.

(a) Stigma.

(b) Style.

(c) Funiculus.

(d) Nucellus.

Sol: (c) Funiculus.

RBSE Biology Chapter 1:Short Answer Type Questions

Q.1. What is a complete flower?

Sol. A complete flower is defined as the flower with all four floral parts- Sepals, Petals, Stamens and Carpels. Roses, tulips, pea plants, hibiscus are some of the common examples of a complete flower.

Q.2. How many whorls does a complete flower have?

Sol. A complete flower has four whorls – calyx, corolla, stamens and the carpels.

  • Calyx- The outer whorl of a flower and it consists of the sepals.
  • Corolla- The middle whorl of a flower and it consists of the petals.
  • Stamens and carpels-The two innermost parts of a flower.

Q.3.What is Agamospermy?

Sol. Agamospermy is a type or a method of asexual reproduction in which the development of the plant is through seeds, without involving the fusion of gametes or sex cells and the meiosis.

Q.4.What is the asexual method of reproduction in Angiosperms?

Sol. The asexual method of reproduction in Angiosperms is also called as apomixis. In this method of reproduction the essential events. i.e. syngamy and meiosis do not occur.

Q.5. Give examples of plants growing with the vegetative propagation by stem.

Sol. Potatoes, ginger, onions, garlic, Tulips, mint, strawberry and all other tubers are examples of plants growing with the vegetative propagation by stem. These plants are produced from the modified stem.

Q.6.What is an adventitious bud?

Sol. A bud growing or arising in other than the normal position is called an adventitious bud. The group of adventitious buds give rise to a new plant similar to the mother plant. Tubers, potatoes and sweet potatoes are examples of plants producing buds.

Q.7.What is root cutting?

Sol. Root cutting is an artificial method of vegetative propagation in plants. In this method of plant propagation, a small portion of the root is removed or cut from the parent plant and is rooted separately to grow individually after certain procedures. There are many plants where the root cutting method is practised. Beetroot, apple, dahlia, radish, lemon, carrot, etc are some of the common examples of vegetative propagation with root cutting.

Q.8. What is vegetative propagation?

Sol. The asexual method of producing plant with the help of its leaves, roots and stem is termed as vegetative propagation. This process occurs through fragmentation and regeneration of specific vegetative parts of plants. There are two different types of vegetative propagation:

Natural Vegetative Propagation–This is a type of vegetative reproduction naturally without any human interference.

Artificial Vegetative Propagation –This is a type of vegetative reproduction carried out by humans on the fields and laboratories.

Q.9.Define the parts of a flower along with its functions.

Sol. The four main parts of a complete flower are:

  • Sepals are the green coloured part beneath the petals. It functions by protecting rising buds.
  • Petals are the bright coloured part of a flower. It functions by attracting bees, insects, and birds for pollination. The colour and shape of petals vary from plant to plant.
  • Carpels are the centre part of the flower. It is also called the fourth whorl of the flower. It comprises pistil, ovary, style and stigma.
  • Stamens, also known as the third whorl of the flower and is the male reproductive part. The main function of the stamen is to produce pollen grains.

Q.10. Define crown grafting?

Sol. Crown grafting is an artificial method of vegetative reproduction. In this method of grafting the scion is inserted at the crown of the stock.

Q.11.How does the vegetative propagation take place in potatoes and other tubers?

Sol. Potato and other tubers are propagated by the vegetative propagation by roots, which is also called cloning. In this method, the tubers develop either from the stem or the root. Potatoes and other tubers have nodes from which the new growth begins.

Q.12. What is carpel? What are the different parts of a carpel?

Sol. The carpel is the female reproductive organ of a flower, It consists of an ovary, a stigma, and usually a style. All these parts give rise to a complete flower.

Q.13.What are the advantages of vegetative reproduction?

Sol. There are several advantages of vegetative reproduction. Listed below are a few of them:

  1. vegetative propagation helps plants in the development of sex organs such as flowers, fruits and seeds.
  2. vegetative propagation is more economical for the plants, compared to other methods of cloning.
  3. Plants produced by vegetative propagation are of superior quality.

Q.14.Explain the process of vegetative propagation in a sugarcane plant?

Sol. Sugarcane plants are produced from the vegetative propagation by stem. In this process of propagation, the stem of disease-free sugar cane plants are selected and their cuttings are planted in soil.

Q.15. What are the similarities between pistil and carpel?

Sol. Both pistil and carpels are composed of the stigma, style and ovary, the female parts of a flower. The pistil is also referred to as a fusion of a single carpel or several carpels.

Q.16.What is an incomplete flower? Give examples.

Sol. Stamens and pistils are the main reproductive parts of a flower. An incomplete flower is defined as a flower in which the stamens and pistils are absent. There are many examples of incomplete flowers, which includes gourds, squashes, sweet corn, different types of grasses, etc.

Q.17.What is pistil? What are the different parts of a pistil?

Sol. A pistil is a female organ of a flower. Style, Stigma, Ovary and Ovules are the four main parts of the pistil.

Q.18.Define grafting.

Sol. Grafting is an artificial method of vegetative reproduction. This method is used to combine sections of two or more plants into a single plant. Lemon, apple and mango are examples of plants produced from the grafting method.

Q.19.What are bulbils?

Sol. Bulbils are the small, young or tender plants that are produced by the vegetative propagation by roots. They are especially common among onions and lilies.

Q.20.Draw a longitudinal section of a flower and label its parts.

 

 Longitudinal section of a flower

RBSE Biology Class 12: Long Answer Type Questions

Q.1.Define natural vegetative propagation and artificial vegetative propagation.

Sol. Vegetative propagation is a type of asexual reproduction in plants where a new plant originates from a parent plant. There are two main types of vegetative propagation.

  1. Natural vegetative propagation: It is a type of plant propagation or reproduction, which occurs when plants grow and develop naturally without any human intervention. The most common methods of Natural vegetative propagation are vegetative propagation by roots, stems, leaves and reproductive organs.
  2. Artificial vegetative propagation: It is a type of plant propagation or reproduction, which involves human intervention. The most common methods of artificial vegetative propagation techniques are grafting, layering, suckering, cutting, and tissue culturing.

Q.2.Explain in detail about the cutting method of vegetative propagation?

Sol.

Cutting.

Cutting is a type of artificial vegetative propagation. In this method of propagation, a small part of a parent plant is cut and replanted in the soil after being treated with all essential plant growth hormones. After a few days, new plants or adventitious roots develop from the cuttings. There are many types of cuttings:

  1. Stem cutting: In this method of propagation, a small piece of stem is cut from the parent plant and is partly buried into the soil. Rose and sugar cane are common examples of stem cutting.
  2. Root cutting: In this method of propagation, the root of a selected plant is buried below the surface of the soil, which later develops into a shoot and to a plant. Lemon and fig are common examples of root cutting.

Q.3.Define the following terms:

  1. Androecium.
  2. Gynoecium.
  3. Propagule.

Sol.

Androecium: It is the male reproductive organ of a flower. It comprises the stamen- the innermost parts of a flower. It functions by producing the pollen for the process of pollination.

Gynoecium: It is the female reproductive organ of a flower. It comprises one or more carpels. It is composed of an ovary, style, and stigma and is present in the centre of the flower.

Propagule: The structure or a reproductive part of a parent plant, which are capable of being propagated.

Q.4. Describe in detail the asexual method of reproduction in Angiosperms?

Sol. The asexual method of reproduction in Angiosperms is also called apomixis. In this method of reproduction the essential events. i.e. syngamy and meiosis do not occur.

Asexual reproduction in plants takes place in two ways:

Naturally: The natural methods of asexual reproduction include self-propagation. The different ways in which a plant self propagates are vegetative propagation by roots, stem, leaves and other reproductive organs

Artificially: The artificial methods of asexual reproduction include human intervention. The most common methods of artificial vegetative propagation techniques are grafting, layering, suckering, cutting and tissue culturing.

Q.5. What is layering? Explain in detail with their types and examples?

Sol. Layering is the artificial methods of vegetative propagation in plants. In this method, a stem is attached to a plant, is lowered in the ground and covered with soil. The stem grows roots while attached to the parent plant and then detaches as an independent plant. The best time to perform layering is when the plant is in its dormant stage. The different types of Layering include:

Mound Layering: This method of layering is used for various woody-stemmed plants. gooseberries and quince are the best examples of plants that can be propagated by air-layering.

Air Layering: This method of layering is used for thick-stemmed houseplants, which have lost their lower leaves and have become leggy. Citrus trees are the best examples of plants that can be propagated by air-layering.

Q.6. Describe the different methods of grafting with suitable examples?

Sol.

Grafting is an artificial vegetative propagation method used to combine sections of two or more plants in a single plant. The different types of Grafting are:

Tongue Grafting– It is also called whip grafting. In this method of grafting a slanting or a V-shaped cut is made, which should be about 6 to 9 cm long. Later the scion wood is fitted on the stock and tightly tied. After a few days, small buds start arising from the scion. This method of grafting is commonly used for bench grafting fruit trees.

Wedge Grafting– In this method of grafting a stock is cut into V-shaped and the scion is cut into a wedge shape. Later the scion is fitted into the stock and is tightly tied together.

Crown Grafting — In this method of grafting the selected stock is many times thicker than the scion. Therefore, more scions are grafted on the stock.

Bud Grafting — In this method of grafting the bud is grafted on the stock. A T-shaped cut is made in the bark of the stock plants, then the selected bud is grafted on the stock and both are tightly tied together.

Q.7. Brief out in detail about the natural vegetative propagation.

Sol. Natural vegetative propagation is a type of plant propagation or reproduction, which occurs when plants grow and develop naturally without any human intervention. The most common methods of Natural vegetative propagation are:

Vegetative propagation by roots: Sweet potato, Tapioca, yam, Dahlia and Tinospora are examples of plants produced by roots.

Vegetative propagation by stems: Onions, Garlic, and Tulips are examples of plants produced by stems.

Vegetative propagation by leaves: Sansevieria African Violets are examples of plants produced by leaves.

Vegetative propagation by reproductive organs: Agave and Purple yam are examples of plants produced by reproductive organs.

Q.8. What are the Advantages of Asexual Reproduction?

Sol. The advantages of asexual reproduction are:

  1. Only one parent is needed.
  2. It occurs in various environments.
  3. The process of reproduction is rapid.
  4. Positive genetic influences pass on to successive generations.
  5. An enormous number of organisms can be produced in very less time.

Q.9. Define the following term:

  1. Agamospermy.
  2. Grafting
  3. Natural vegetative propagation.

Agamospermy: It is a type or a method of asexual reproduction in which the development of a plant is through seeds without involving the fusion of gametes or sex cells and the meiosis.

Grafting: It is an artificial method of vegetative reproduction. This method used to combine sections of two or more plants into a single plant.

Natural vegetative propagation: It is a type of plant propagation or reproduction, which occurs when plants grow and develop naturally without any human intervention. The most common methods of natural vegetative propagation are vegetative propagation by roots, stems, leaves and reproductive organs.

Q.10.Write a few differences between the sexual and asexual method of reproduction in Angiosperms?

Sol. Listed below are the differences between the sexual and asexual method of reproduction in Angiosperms.

Sexual Method of Reproduction

Asexual Method of Reproduction

In the sexual mode of reproduction, new plants are produced through the fusion of female and male gametes, which forms the embryo. In the asexual mode of reproduction, plants give rise to new plant structures without the fusion of the male and female reproductive parts.
In this process, there is a formation of both fruits and seeds. In this process, there is no formation of fruits and seed.

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