RBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 14- Biotechnology – General Introduction. In this chapter, students can learn in detail about biotechnology, its applications, different techniques and its applications for human welfare. It also includes a detailed study about the scope and importance, different branches of biotechnology, list of all biotechnological parks in India and much more, related to the field of biotechnology.
These important questions help students to perform exceptionally well in their exams. By practising these important questions, students can analyze their preparation, get a thorough knowledge about all the important terminologies and perform their best in the examinations.
RBSE Solutions for Class 12 are the best study material for both class assignments and other board examinations. By practising these important questions, students can gain deep knowledge about the topics explained in this chapter and also help them to be well prepared for their upcoming examinations.
RBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 14 Important Questions
RBSE Biology Chapter 14: MCQ Type Questions
Q.1. Which of the following is not an example of traditional Biotechnology?
(a) Formation of curd and cheese from milk.
(b) Formation of vinegar from sugarcane juice.
(c) Production of beer from sugar.
(d) Medicine production by rDNA technology.
Sol: (d) Medicine production by rDNA technology.
Q.2. Who used the term BIOTECHNOLOGY for the first time?
(a) Karl Erik.
(c) Alexander Flemming.
(d) Shipra Guha Mukherjee.
Sol: (a) Karl Erik.
Q.3. In which year was the National Biotechnology Board established in India?
Sol: (a) 1982.
Q.4. In which year for the first time was gene therapy used in the treatment of leukaemia disease?
Sol: (c) 2015.
Q.5. Who discovered Bacteriophage?
(b) Theodar Eschrich.
(c) Frederich W. Wort.
(d) K.F Budareh.
Sol: (c) Frederich W. Wort.
Q.6. In which year was the penicillin antibiotic used?
Sol: (c) 1928.
Q.7. What was the name of the first cloned sheep produced by Ian Wilmut?
Q.8. Centre for cell and molecular biology is situated at _____.
(a) New Delhi.
Sol: (b) Hyderabad.
Q.9. ICGEB is associated with which organization?
Sol: (b) UNIDO.
Q.10. Which of the techniques is used in the study of proteins, nucleic acid and enzyme layer interaction?
(a) Protein microarray.
(b) Gene chips.
(c) DNA microarray.
(d) All of the above.
Sol: (a) Protein microarray.
RBSE Biology Chapter 14: Short Answer Type Questions.
Q.1. What is Biotechnology?
Sol. Biotechnology is the subject of science, which deals with the study of techniques dealing with the application of organisms and their functions for the production of new products for specific human use. Biotechnology is also known as biological technology.
Q.2.What is traditional Biotechnology?
Sol. In ancient times, our ancestors used to produce wine, bear, bread, vinegar, etc. by the process of fermentation. The study of bioprocess related to fermentation and biological control is called the traditional biotechnology.
Q.3.What is a biotechnology park?
Sol. The biotechnology park are the centres which provide information and counselling to the group of people who want to establish a biotechnology based industries. In India there are around 19 centres of biotechnology parks, which have been established and few are proposed to be set up.
Q.4. Define Biotransformation.
Sol. The process of converting byproducts of relatively less utility into high utility products by the use of a single cell culture technique is called biotransformation.
Q.5. What is Biofilm?
Sol. A biofilm is a group of microbial cells adhered to each other and immobilized on a surface. This complex is normally covered by a matrix made up of polysaccharides. It functions as a basic unit in wastewater treatment.
Q.6. What is Biochips?
Sol. Biochips are also called as the DNA chips or DNA microarray. Biochips are the collection of small DNA molecules immobilised to a solid surface. This technique is used by scientists to measure the level of expression of several genes at one time. The first biochips were developed in the year 1991 by Stephen P.A fodar and his colleagues.
Q.7. What are the applications of biotechnology in Agriculture?
Sol. The application of Biotechnology in the field of agriculture is known as Green Biotechnology or Green Revolution. It is one of the most promising streams of biotechnology, which fulfills one of the world’s biggest challenges by cultivating genetically modified plants to increase crop yield.
Biotechnology has contributed a lot to the field of agriculture and they include:
- Organic agriculture
- Agro-chemical based agriculture
- Genetically engineered crop-based agriculture.
Q.8. What is Biosensor?
Sol. Biosensors are a product of biological components, such as microbes, cell organelles and tissues, which interact in different ways with the analyte. All living organisms contain biosensors which have a functional system resembling that of mechanical devices.
Q.9. What is Gene Therapy?
Sol. Gene therapy is a technique which involves the replacement of defective genes with healthy ones in order to treat genetic disorders. It is an artificial method that introduces DNA into the cells of the human body. The first gene therapy was successfully accomplished in the year 1989.
Q.10. What is protein microarray?
Sol. It is a technique based on the microorgan engagement measurement, which depends on the product formed by the target molecules and stable molecules in the solution. The protein microarray technique is used to study the protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein-medicine, enzyme and layer interaction, etc.
Q.11. Define Gene chip.
Sol. These are the microchips on which the complementary DNA probes are established on an inert surface, These are able to identify the samples used for analysis or experimentation. The gene chips are also called the DNA chips.
Q.12. Define Microarray.
Sol. There are two different types of microarray. DNA microarray and protein microarray.
DNA microarray-It is the size of a postal stamp. Approximately four lakh cells are immobilized on an insert surface. In each cell, there are microspots of DNA containing single stranded C-DNA sequences of different genes.
Protein microarray- It is based upon the group binding analysis. It depends upon the products formed as a result on interaction between the largest molecules present in the solution and the immobilized molecules.
Q.13. What are the applications of biotechnology in medicine?
Sol. Today, the application of biotechnology plays an important role in the medicinal field. The various efforts and experimentation are performed in the field of medicinal biotechnology are as follows:
- Technique of gene treatment.
- Development of edible vaccines.
- Production of monoclonal antibodies.
- Vaccines are obtained from the genetically engineered bacteria.
- Application of genetic engineering to produce humulin and other growth hormones.
Q.14.List out the important schemes of biotechnology department.
Sol. The department of biotechnology aims to develop institutes and centres for germplasm storage, conservation and re-establishment and to start various schemes in biotechnology, which are as follows:
- National Bureau of Plant Genetic Research.
- National Facility for Plant Tissue Culture Repository.
- Central Institute of Medical and Aromatic Plants.
- Tropical Botanical Gardens and Research Institutes.
Q.15.What are the different branches of biotechnology?
Sol. The main branches of biotechnology are:
- Plant biotechnology.
- Animal biotechnology .
- Medical biotechnology.
- Marine biotechnology.
- Industrial Biotechnology.
- Bioinformatics biotechnology.
- Food and nutrition biotechnology.
- Bioresource and Environmental biotechnology.
RBSE Biology Class 12: Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1.What is a biotechnology park? List out the important biotechnology parks in India.
Sol. The biotechnology parks are the centres which provide information and counselling to the group of people who want to establish a biotechnology based industries. In India there are around 19 centres of biotechnology parks, which have been established and a few are proposed to be set up.
Listed below are the important Biotechnology parks in India.
- Biotech Park, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.
- Biotechnology Park, Bangalore, Karnataka.
- Biotechnology Incubation Centre, Cochin, Kerala.
- Chhattisgarh Biotech Park, Naya Raipur, Chhattisgarh.
- Industrial Biotechnology Parks (IBTPs), Jammu & Kashmir.
- Biotech Park Technology – Incubation Centre, Guwahati, Assam.
- The Golden Jubilee Biotech Park For Women, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
- Biotech Park Technology Incubation Centre, Hyderabad, Telangana.
- TICEL – Tidco Centre For Life Sciences Biotech Park, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
Q.2.What is bioinformatics?
Sol. Bioinformatics is an emerging branch of biological science emerged by the combination of both biology and information technology. It is an interdisciplinary field of study that uses Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science that are merged to form a single discipline. This sector is mainly involved in analyzing biological data, developing new software using biological tools. Bioinformatics is mainly used to extract knowledge from biological data through the development of algorithms and software. Bioinformatics is widely applied in the examination of Genomics, Proteomics, 3D structure modelling of Proteins, Image analysis, Drug designing and a lot more. A significant application of bioinformatics can be found in the fields of precision and preventive medicines, which is mainly focused on developing measures to prevent, control and cure dreadful infectious diseases.
Listed below are a few applications of Bioinformatics.
- In Gene therapy.
- In Evolutionary studies.
- In Microbial applications.
- In Prediction of Protein Structure.
- For the Storage and Retrieval of Data.
- In the field of medicine, used in the discovery of new drugs.
- In Biometrical Analysis for identification and access control for improvising crop management, crop production and pest control.
The main aim of Bioinformatics is to increase the understanding of biological processes.
Q.3.What is Medical Biotechnology? List out its applications.
Sol.In the field of medicines, Biotechnology is widely used in the development of several innovative techniques for diagnosing, treating and preventing diseases. It helps in providing effective treatments and prevention measures for different diseases by its inventions of novel drugs and recombinant vaccines.
Therapeutic proteins have a greater effect against a variety of non-communicable diseases, which was responsible for over 50-60% of deaths in developing countries.
With the help of modern biotechnology, many diagnostic tools have been introduced for the detection of diseases in a quick and accurate manner.
It is the use of cells and their materials for the betterment of human health. It finds applications in finding cures and preventing diseases. Tools are used for the purpose of research to discover efficient ways to maintain human health. Study of animal, plant and bacterial cells is carried out to understand the functioning, the science can hence be used to produce pharmaceutical drugs and chemicals to fight diseases. Study of DNA, in particular, is carried out to understand the manipulation of genetic information in cells thereby increasing the benefits it can cause to humans such as insulin production. Few examples of the applications are:
Vaccines – They are the chemicals that stimulate the system to fight better against pathogenic attack.
Antibiotics – Antibiotics are being developed to combat pathogens in humans by producing plants that are genetically engineered to produce antibodies. It is a cost-effective process as compared to the cell extraction process from animals and plants to synthesize antibodies on a larger scale.
Q.4. What is Agricultural Biotechnology? List out its application.
Sol. Biotechnology has played a significant role in improving human health by producing enriched nutrients food products such as Golden Rice, potato maize, groundnuts, and soybean etc.
The application of biotechnology in the agriculture field helps in improving food quality, quantity and processing. Bio-fertilizers and Bio-pesticides are eco-friendly sources for agriculture, which contain the living microorganisms that help in promoting growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients. Farmers choose biotech crops to increase the yield and lower production costs.
It focuses on cultivating genetically modified plants to increase crop yield. In a few cases, scientists detect a favorable characteristic, identify the gene causing it and then incorporate that gene into a different plant so that it obtains that desirable characteristic. Few examples of the applications are:
Animal and plant breeding – Selective breeding involves choosing animals with the most desirable characteristics, allowing them to breed so as to produce offspring with similar traits. Some of the desirable traits were – animals resistant to diseases, large animals, domestic animals to make farming all the more profitable.
Pest-resistant crops – Anti-pest traits expressing plants are developed using biotechnological principles which makes them resistant to pests. For instance, the Bacillus thuringiensis gene is transferred to crops. The fungus synthesizes an effective protein against the pests.
Q.5. Brief out the physical properties and chemical structure of biochips.
Sol. The chemical structure and physical properties of bio chips as per the requirement are as follows:
Gene chips– These are microchips on which the complementary DNA probes are pasted and are able to identify the samples used for the experiment.
Microarray – There are two different types of microarray:
DNA microarray-The size of the DNA microarray is even smaller than the postal stamp, which is typically less than 200 microns in diameter.
Protein microarray- It is a technique based on the microorgan engagement measurement, which depends on the product formed by the target molecules and stable molecules in the solution. The protein microarray technique is used to study the protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein-medicine, enzyme and layer interaction, etc.
Q.6. What is trading biotechnology? What are the different types of techniques of biotechnology?
Sol. Trading biotechnology is defined as the study of bioprocess and other procedures related to fermentation and biological control. It refers to the very old technique, which was used in ancient times by our ancestors to produce wine, bear, bread and vinegar by the process of fermentation.
There are different techniques of biotechnology, listed below are some of them:
- Plant tissue culture.
- Animal tissue culture.
- DNA nanotechnology.
- Plant genetic engineering.
- Embryo transfer in animals.
- Recombinant DNA technology.
- Production of monoclonal antibodies.
Q.7. What is Industrial Biotechnology? List out its application.
Sol. Biotechnology is the field that exploits living organisms to make technological advances in various fields for the sustainable development of mankind. It has its applications in the medical, food, beverages as well as agricultural sectors. The biological processes of living organisms have been used for more than 6000 years to make essential products such as bread, cheese, alcohol, etc.
The applications of biotechnology are:
- Biotechnology is widely used as a nutrient supplementation into food in situations of aid. For eg., Golden rice is prepared by the infusion of beta-carotene into rice.
- Biotechnology is involved in the production of abiotic stress crops that can handle drought, salinity, abiotic stress, cold and other factors including both internally and externally.
- Biotechnology is involved in the production of beverages like wine, alcohol, yogurt and other products including detergents, cosmetic products, biological elements and other cellular structures for numerous purposes.
- Biotechnology is involved in the tanning and leather industries to increase the rate of productivity. In the production of wool and silk material the genes from the spiders have been collected and infused in goats to produce silk proteins in their milk through biotechnological techniques . This helps in the production of silk easily.
- Due to the depletion of natural resources and high demand for fuels, biotechnology is widely used in energy production. With the application of biotechnology tools, several biofuels are produced using animal fats, vegetable oils, and waste cooking oil. These are environment friendly and do not release any greenhouse gas.
- Biotechnology has offered modern medical devices for diagnostic and preventing dreadful disease and also introduced molecular diagnostic techniques, development of vaccines, antibiotics and new drugs, production of biological molecules for therapeutic purposes
Q.8. What is biotechnology? Write a note on the development of biotechnology in India?
Sol. Biotechnology is the subject of science, which deals with the study of techniques dealing with the application of organisms and their functions for the production of new products for commercial use.
In our country, extensive research is going on in the field of biotechnology in various national and international institutes of universities. Considering the importance and the role of biotechnology in human welfare, Government of India has established “National Biotechnology Board ” – NBTB in 1982.
The main objective of biotechnology is to develop basic infrastructure and facilities in the field of biotechnology research in national and international institutes and in universities.
Q.9. List out the career opportunities related to biotechnology.
Sol. Biotechnology is a multidisciplinary field which is the combination of biological sciences with modern technologies. This stream has a wide variety of career opportunities both in private and government sectors, as this application is widely used in different types of industries, including – Agriculture, food production, beverage industry, animal husbandry, chemical industries, environmental conservation, health care, marine life, medicines, etc.
Listed below are a few of them.
- Health Care.
- Recycling plants.
- Animal Husbandry.
- Agriculture industries.
- Sewage Treatment Plant.
- Bio-processing industries.
- Food processing industries.
- Department of Horticulture.
- Clinical Research Associates.
- Forensic Science Technicians.
- Biomanufacturing Specialists.
- Biochemists and Biophysicists.
- Greenhouse or Field Technician.
- Biotech and Research Industries.
- Genetic and Biomedical Engineers.
- Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists.
- Epidemiologists and Microbiologists.
- Pharmaceutical research and Chemical industries.
- Medical and Clinical Lab Technologists or Technicians.
- Waste management and Environment control systems.
- Forensic science laboratories and other medical laboratories.
Q.10. How is biotechnology used in the field of environmental conservation?
Sol. Biotechnology is the use of technology to modify or manipulate any biological system or living system for the development or improvement of products for various purposes.
The application of biotechnology in the study of environmental conservation and other concepts related to environment is called as environmental biotechnology
This is an important sector as it mainly deals with finding the solutions for different environmental issues, including global warming, pollution, waste management, and other safety measures to control these issues. Those candidates who are more passionate about the environment and ecosystem can choose this field as their career. These professionals are mainly involved in creating plant-based bioplastics producing biofuels and other bioremediation techniques to clean up the environment from hazardous wastes.
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